Pesticides (Di – Diu)
Dichlorophen is used as an algicide, antihelmintic, bactericide and agricultural fungicide. It is used in antihelminthic drug fo the treatment against tapeworms. It is used to control moss in turf.It is used as an ingredient in deodorants, shampoos, soaps and cosmetics.
From the side of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: dizziness, headache, agitation, insomnia, irritability, fatigue, rarely - paresthesia, visual disturbances (blurred, double vision), tinnitus, insomnia, cramps, irritability, tremors, mental disorders, depression. Hemopoietic system: rarely - anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis. Urinary system: rarely - renal failure; in predisposed patients may be swelling. Dermatological reactions: rarely - hair loss.
Dicrotophos can cause cholinesterase inhibition in humans; that is, it can overstimulate the nervous system causing nausea, dizziness, confusion, and at very high exposures (e.g., accidents or major spills), respiratory paralysis and death. Dicrotophos causes cholinesterase inhibition at very low concentrations and this inhibition can last for up to two weeks from a single exposure.
Toxicity data: LD50 in female, male rats (mg/kg): 16, 21 orally; 42, 43 dermally (Gaines)
Acute inhalation is LC50 2.2 mg.
The population as a whole is not generally subject to exposure to dimethoate from air, water or food; however occupational exposure may occur during manufacture, formulation and use. This mainly occurs through inhalation and dermal absorption, although occupational exposure can occur by accident or as a result of incorrect handling. Where humans are exposed to dimethoate, there are many effects: when inhaled, the first effects are usually respiratory and may include a bloody or runny nose, coughing, chest discomfort, difficult or short breath, and wheezing due to constriction or excess fluid in the bronchial tubes. Skin contact may cause skin sensitisation. Eye contact will cause pain, bleeding, tears, pupil constriction and blurred vision. Following exposure by any route, other systemic effects may begin within a few minutes or be delayed for up to 12 hours. These may include pallor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, eye pain, and blurred vision. Severe poisoning will affect the central nervous system producing lack of coordination, slurred speech, loss of reflexes, weakness, fatigue, involuntary muscle contractions, twitching, tremors of the tongue or eyelids, and eventually paralysis of the body extremities and the respiratory muscles.