Pesticides (0 – 9)

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NAME: 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene is only used as a chemical intermediate, specifically for the production of herbicides, pigments and dyes. Both 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene are used as process solvents, such as dye carriers. Europe has ceased using trichlorobenzenes in dielectric fluids - a main application in the past. Trichlorobenzenes are produced by direct chlorination of benzene. Today, commercial production of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is 99.8% pure. Historically, trichlorobenzenes were produced as a mixture of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene. Trichlorobenzene may enter the environment during manufacturing, processing and use of the chemical. A 1997 survey of 78 European sites producing or using trichlorobenzene showed emissions from water at 0.552 t/y and air at 0.351 t/y. Emissions in water were reduced by 97% between 1985 and 1997. Trichlorobenzene is also formed during various combustion processes and in the production of the wood preservative lindane. The greatest use of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is primarily as a dye carriet. It is also used to make herbicides and other organic chemicals; as a solvent; in wood preservatives; in abrasives. It was once used as a soil treatment for termite control. Some people who drink water containing 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years could experience changes in their adrenal glands.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: This health effects language is not intended to catalog all possible health effects for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. Rather, it is intended to inform consumers of some of the possible health effects associated with 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in drinking water when the rule was finalized.
NAME: 1,3-dichloropropene
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (soil fumigant, contact poison)
DESCRIPTION: 1,3-D is registered for use on all crops to be planted on 1,3-D-treated soils. Thus, the use sites include all vegetable, fruit and nut crops, all forage crops (grasses, legumes and other non-grass forage crops), tobacco, all fiber crops and all nursery crops (ornamental, non-bearing fruit/nut trees and forestry crops). 1,3-D is registered for use on all crops to be planted on 1,3-D-treated soils. Thus, the use sites include all vegetable, fruit and nut crops, all forage crops (grasses, legumes and other non-grass forage crops), tobacco, all fiber crops and all nursery crops (ornamental, non-bearing fruit/nut trees and forestry crops). 1,3-D is classified as a non-food use pesticide (and thus there are no tolerances or exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance). 1,3-D is classified as a non-food use pesticide (and thus there are no tolerances or exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance).
HEALTH PROBLEMS: 1,3-D is classified as a B2 carcinogen by both the oral and inhalation routes of exposure. The 1,3-D risk assessment presents aggregated risks for both routes of exposure. Because EPA does not have toxicity data on the alcohol and acid degradates, EPA assumed carcinogenic and toxicological equivalence to the parent, thus oral exposure and risk estimates are comprised of 1,3-D plus the degradates (unless specifically noted). Due to 1,3-D’s carcinogenicity, environmental fate and use patterns, EPA has concerns that use could result in exposure to residues in air and/or water. EPA’s cancer risk estimates for workers who follow abel restrictions are in the 10-5 to 10-6 range. For residents who live near treated fields, lifetime cancer inhalation risk estimates are in the 10-5 to 10-8 range taking into account a 300 foot no-treatment buffer, but not taking into account other measures (e.g., lowering application rates by 30-65%, soil sealing measures) which were not amenable to quantification under the highly variable field study conditions.  
NAME: 1,3,5-Tribromobenzene
CLASSIFICATION: Nitrated benzene
DESCRIPTION: 1, 3,5-Trinitrobenzene is a nitrated benzene-derivative that is classified as a high explosive, being moderately explosive in liquid form and extremely explosive in its dry powder form. It has a clear to light yellow sludgy appearance. It will detonate under strong shock. High temperatures, whether by sudden heating of any quantity, or by the accumulation of heat when large quantities are burning, will also cause detonation. The material can react vigorously with reducing materials and is incompatible with sodium dichromate or sulfuric acid. Organic nitrates may explode by shock, exposure to heat or flame, or by spontaneous chemical reaction. It must be stored in a cool, ventilated place, away from acute fire hazards and easily oxidized materials. It also reacts violently with aluminium, boron phosphide, cyanides, esters, PN2H, phosphorus, NaCN, SnC12, sodium hypophosphite, thiocyanates, etc. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of NOx. It is an extremely powerful oxidizing agent which may cause violent reaction with reducing materials.
HEALTH PROBLEM: The most common modes of exposure are either direct contact with the substance or through drinking contaminated water. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene is believed to cause similar health problems as TNT. Exposure to high concentrations most commonly causes anemia, or the reduced ability for blood to carry oxygen. As a result of the lack of oxygen, the skin typically becomes blue or purple in color. Other symptoms of exposure include headache, nausea, and dizziness. The long term effects from exposure are not known because no long term studies of health effects have been performed. It is believed that long term exposure will cause sterility (especially in males) and cataracts. It is unknown if Trinitrobenzene causes birth defects or cancer.
NAME: 2-ethyl-6-methylaniline (or  Metolachlor)
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: 2-ethyl-6-methylanilineis an organic compound that is widely used as a herbicide. It is a derivative of aniline and is a member of the chloroacetanilide herbicides. It is highly effective toward grasses but its application is also controversial. Aromatic amines are much weaker bases than the aliphatics. One of the most important aromatic amines is aniline, a primary aromatic amine replacing one hydrogen atom of a benzene molecule with an amino group. It is a pale brown liquid at room temperature; boiling at 184 C, melting at -6 C; slightly soluble in water and freely soluble in ether and alcohol. It causes serious industrial poisoning.  The substance may have effects on the blood, resulting in formation of methaemoglobin. Repeated or prolonged exposures may be carcinogenic. Commercial aniline is obtained from nitrobenzene, which is prepared from benzene with nitric acid by electrophilic substitution reaction, or from chlorobenzene by heating with ammonia in the presence of copper catalyst. It is also obtained as a by-product of coal tar. In commerce, the term of aniline oil blue refers to the pure one while aniline oil red indicates a mixture of aniline and toluidines with equimolecular weights. Considerable quantity of aniline is converted into 4,4¡¯-methylenedianiline (MDA) by the condensation reaction of formaldehyde with aniline in the presence of hydrochloric acid. MDA is is used as an epoxy curing agent, a corrosion inhibitor and molded plastics, and as an intermediate to prepare organic compounds used for polyurethane, spandex fibers, azo dyes, isocyanates and poly(amide-imide) resins. Other important aromatic amine compound as the starting material to produce polyurethane foam production is toluenediamine (TDA). TDA is the mixture of 2,4-diaminotoluene and 2,6-diaminotoluene, usually in a ratio of 80:20. Most of TDA is used in the manufacture of toluene diisocyanate (TDI), which is the predominant diisocyanate in the flexible foams and elastomers industries. TDI reacts with an alcohol to form urethane linkages. Other applications of TDA include to produce dyes, polyamides, antioxidants, hydraulic fluids, and fungicide stabilizers. Aniline is a starting moiety to prepare plant protecting agents. Examples include fenuron (CAS RN: 101-42-8), propham (CAS RN: 122-42-9), siduron (CAS RN: 1982-49-6), carboxin (CAS RN: 5234-68-4), fenfuram (CAS RN: 24691-80-3) and propachlor (CAS RN: 1918-16-7). Aniline is processed to produce a series of compounds being used in the rubber industry, e.g. diphenylguanidines, phenylenediamines mercaptobenzothiazoles, aniline ketones and etc. There are three isomers of phenylenediamine: ortho-, meta-, and para-phenylenediamine. They are low toxic diamines used as components of plastic composites and engineering polymers. They are used to produce aramid fibers, dyes including hair dyes, rubber chemicals (vulcanization accelerators and antioxidants), and pigments.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  2-ethyl-6-methylaniline has been detected in ground and surface waters and concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 4.5 parts per billion (ppb) throughout the U.S. It is classified as a Category C pesticide by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) which indicates limited evidence of carcinogenicity. Evidence of the bioaccumulation of metolachlor in edible species of fish as well as its adverse effect on the growth and development raise concerns on its effects on human health. There is no set maximum concentration (maximum contaminant level, MCL) for metolachlor that is allowed in drinking water, the US EPA does have a health advisory level (HAL) of 0.525 mg/L. Metolachlor induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes.  Genotoxic effects have also been observed in tadpoles exposed to metolachlor. Evidence also reveals that metolachlor affects cell growth. Cell division in yeast was reduced, and chicken embryos exposed to metolachlor showed a significant decrease in the average body mass compared to the control
NAME: 2-methylphenol
CLASSIFICATION: Organic compound
DESCRIPTION: Cresols are organic compounds which are methyl phenols. They are a widely occurring natural and manufactured group of aromatic organic compounds which are categorized as phenols (sometimes called phenolics). Depending on the temperature, cresols can be solid or liquid because they have melting points not far from room temperature. Like other types of phenols, they are slowly oxidized by long exposure to air and the impurities often give cresols a yellowish to brownish red tint. Cresols have an odor characteristic to that of other simple phenols, reminiscent to some of a "coal tar" smell. Cresols are used to dissolve other chemicals, as disinfectants and deodorizers, and to make specific chemicals that kill insect pests.
HEALTH PROBLEM: The health effects data for 2-methylphenol were reviewed by the U.S. EPA RfD/RfC Work Group and determined to be inadequate for the derivation of an inhalation RfC. The verification status for this chemical is currently not verifiable.
NAME: Nitrophenols (2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol)
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Nitrophenols include two chemicals, 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol, which are very similar to each other. They are manufactured chemicals that do not occur naturally in the environment. The manufacture of one almost always produces a little of the other, so they are grouped together when discussing their properties and harmful effects. 2-Nitrophenol is a light yellow solid with a peculiar sweet smell. 4-Nitrophenol is a colorless to light yellow solid with very little odor. 2-Nitrophenol is used mainly to make dyes, paint coloring, rubber chemicals, and substances that kill molds. 4-Nitrophenol is used mainly to make drugs, fungicides, dyes, and to darken leather.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Small amounts of the two substances can be found in the air, water, and soil. Therefore, breathing air, drinking water, and eating foods grown in soils that contain these substances can expose humans to them. The background levels (when no apparent sources of pollution are present) of the two nitrophenols in air are not known. However, in one case, the level of 2-nitrophenol in the air in Portland, Oregon, was 4 parts per trillion (ppt by volume). Its level in the air in Dubendorf, Switzerland, was 61 ppt. These are very small numbers, and exposure from breathing air containing such low levels of these substances may not be very harmful. Except for one case of polluted water, these two substances have not been found in U.S. public drinking waters. The background levels of these compounds in foods eaten by humans are not known either. Because the chemicals break down rapidly, any exposure from these levels will be small. 4-Nitrophenol has been found in the urine of people who did not have any known exposure to this substance. The 4-nitrophenol found in human urine comes from the breakdown within the body of a pesticide, parathion that is commonly used on certain agricultural products that many of us eat.
NAME: 2,3,6-Trichloroanisole 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are 2,3,6-TRICHLOROANISOL;2,3,6-TRICHLOROANISOLE; 2,5,6-Trichloroanisole;2,3,6-TRICHLOROANISOLE PESTANAL;3-Methoxy-1,2,4-trichlorobenzene;1,2,4-Trichloro-3-methoxy-benzene;Benzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-3-methoxy. Chloroanisoles have been known for a long time to cause intense moldy flavors in wine, cork, Cognac, and many other products. A large variety of derivatives come from a chlorine aromatic ring. Although 2,3,6 Trichloroanisole is surely one of the strongest smelling chloranisoles (sensory threshold perception = 0,1 pg/l in water), 2,4,6 trichloroanisole and 2,3,4,6 tetrachloroanisole have the strongest odors but the weakest sensory threshold perception (0,03 and 4 ng/l in water). Pentachloroanisole is much less odoriferous than the other chloroanisoles (sensory threshold perception = 4 ug/l in water). Chloroanisoles come from methylation and related chlorophenols. This biochemical reaction comes from many micro-organisms, and most notably mold. In an opposite reaction to that of chloroanisoles, chlorophenols are not odoriferous molecules since they are generally proton related to the wine pH. Chlorophenols can come from several sources. In the past they have been mostly used as insecticides for treating wood, but they could also have other uses.

HEALTH PROBLEM: Although the material is not thought to be an irritant, direct contact with the eye may cause transient discomfort characterized by tearing or conjunctival redness (as with windburn). Slight abrasive damage may also result. The material is not thought to produce adverse health effects or skin irritation following contact (as classified using animal models). 

NAME: 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Grey in color and flaky in appearance; 2,4,5-trichlorophenol also looks like small needles. It
has a really strong odor that smells like phenol (a poisonous crystal-looking compound). This man-made substance is not found naturally in the environment. 2,4,5- Trichlorophenol has several uses. The paper and pulp mills use 2,4,5- Trichlorophenol as a fungicide to destroy or prevent fungi from growing. It is also used as a herbicide and to make other pesticides.

HEALTH PROBLEMS: If your skin comes into contact with 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, it may burn. It can also irritate your eyes, nose, pharynx and your lungs if you breathe it. There is no information on the effects of long-term exposure to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol on humans. However, animal studies show that long-term exposure in rats through diet caused some slight decline in the liver and kidneys. No information is available on whether 2,4,5-trichlorophenol can cause cancer in humans. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined that 2,4,5-trichlorophenol is not classifiable regarding the likelihood of it causing cancer.
NAME:   2,4,5-Trimethylaniline
CLASSIFICATION: Aromatic amines
DESCRIPTION: One of the most important aromatic amines is aniline, a primary aromatic amine replacing one hydrogen atom of a benzene molecule with an amino group. It is a pale brown liquid at room temperature; boiling at 184 C, melting at -6 C; slightly soluble in water and freely soluble in ether and alcohol. It causes serious industrial poisoning.  The substance may have effects on the blood, resulting in formation of methaemoglobin. Repeated or prolonged exposures may be carcinogenic. Commercial aniline is obtained from nitrobenzene which is prepared from benzene with nitric acid by electrophilic substitution reaction or from chlorobenzene by heating  with ammonia in the presence of copper catalyst. It is also obtained as a by-product of coal tar. In commerce the term of aniline oil blue refers to the pure one while aniline oil red indicates a mixture of aniline and toluidines with equimolecular weights.
HEALTH PROBLEM: It is harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Exposure to toxic chemicals can cause any of several negative effects on human health, such as cancer or birth defects. Scorecard highlights the specific health hazards that each particular chemical poses. Twelve separate categories of health effects are covered. Some chemicals are widely recognized to be hazardous, while others are only suspected, so Scorecard always distinguishes between "recognized" and "suspected" health threats.
NAME: 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole
CLASSIFICATION: Biochemical (cork taint in wines)

DESCRIPTION: 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole (TCA) is a chemical compound that is a chlorinated derivative of anisole. It is the chemical primarily responsible for cork taint in wines. TCA has also been implicated as a major component of the "Rio defect" in coffees from Central and South America. TCA is a chemical compound (C7H5OCl3) that adversely affects the aroma and taste of contaminated wines. A highly volatile chemical is detectable in amazingly small concentrations in wine. In white wines the threshold is as little as 2 parts per trillion. 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole (TCA), which has been identified as the main component responsible for the cork taint in wine, was detected in sake samples having a musty/muddy off-flavor by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). We confirmed that TCA is one of the components causing this off-flavor in sake, as in other alcoholic beverages, from a sensory analysis showing the correlation between TCA concentration and the intensity of the musty/muddy off-flavor. We investigated the route of TCA production in the rice koji preparation process and in the moromi mash process for sake brewing. We found that TCA is produced mainly by the biomethylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) by rice koji in brewing and that TCP originates from the wooden tools used in preparing rice koji.

HEALTH PROBLEMS: very potent toxin for humans. It is  metabolized in the liver by the enzyme CYP2A6.
NAME:  2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide, herbicide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol, also known as TCP, phenaclor, Dowicide 2S, Dowcide 2S, omal, is a chlorinated phenol that has been used as a fungicide, herbicide, insecticide, antiseptic, defoliant, and glue preservative. It is a yellow solid with a strong, sweet odour. It decomposes on heating to produce toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride and chlorine.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol is carcinogenic in animals, causing lymphomas, leukemia, and liver cancer via oral exposure.[3][4] It is classified as Group B2 (probable human carcinogen) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.[4] The technical grade of this substance may contain polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and other contaminants.
NAME: 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile      
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile  is an organic compounds containing cyano group      (-C?N, containing trivalent nitrogen) which is attached to one carbon atom with the general formula RC?N. Their names are corresponding to carboxylic acids by changing '-ic acid' to the suffix, '-onitrile' which denotes only the ?N atom (triply bound) excluding the carbon atom attached to it, or  the suffix, '-carbonitrile' where the carbon atom in the -CN is included, whichever preserves a single letter O. Examples are acetonitrile from acetic acid and benzonitrile from benzoic acid. The prefix, ‘cyano-' is used as an alternative naming system to indicate the presence of a nitrile group in a molecule for the compounds of salts and organic derivatives of hydrogen cyanide (HC?N). Isocyanides are salts and hydrocarbyl derivatives from the isomer, HN+?C-. Sodium cyanide, NaCN; potassium cyanide, KCN; calcium cyanide, Ca(CN)2; and hydrocyanic (or prussic) acid, HCN are examples. Chemically, the simple inorganic cyanides resemble chlorides in many ways. Organic nitriles act as solvents and are reacted further for various applications including;

HEALTH PROBLEMS: very potent toxin for humans. It is  metabolized in the liver by the enzyme CYP2A6. 
NAME: 3-Trifluormethylaniline       
CLASSIFICATION: aromatic amine.
DESCRIPTION: 3-(Trifluoromethyl) aniline is a compound with the molecular formula CF3C6H4NH2. It is an aromatic amine. 3-(Trifluoromethyl) aniline is an intermediate in the production of the herbicide fluometuron. It is synthesized from benzotrifluoride via nitrationfollowed by reduction to meta-H2NC6H4CF3. 3-( Trifluoromethyl) aniline is then converted to the urea, fluometuron.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Identification and assignment of metabolite responses to toxicity were found via correlation coefficient-shift plots. As measured by the correlation coefficients alanine was the most significant metabolite. Further, elevated levels of glucose, and the citric acid cycle intermediates citrate and succinate were noted as potential biomarkers of toxicity. 

NAME: 4-Chlorophenyl isocyanate

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticides (used as an intermediate in pesticide and pharmaceutical manufacturing)

DESCRIPTION: The IUPAC name of 4-Chlorophenyl isocyanates is 1-chloro-4-isocyanatobenzene. With the CAS registry number 104-12-1, it is also named as Isocyanic acid, p-chlorophenyl ester. The classification codes are Human Data; Skin / Eye Irritant. It is colorless to light yellow liquid or crystal which decomposes in water and is soluble in toluene, xylene and other organic solvents. Additionally, this chemical should be sealed in the container and stored in the cool and dry place. Preparation of 4-Chlorophenyl isocyanates: Adding chloroaniline and toluene in the reactor, and stirring to the chloroaniline dissolve. And then passing phosgene at the low-temperature. After passing a certain amount of phosgene, transfer the material into the thermal reactor, and heating to about 105 °C. The materials become transparent, then refluxing a certain time, passing nitrogen gas to remove phosgene. Finally, we can get the product by cooling. Uses of 4-Chlorophenyl isocyanate: It is used as an intermediate in pesticide and pharmaceutical manufacture. And it also can react with 1-methyl-5-methylsulfanyl-2,3-dihydro-pyrrole to get 1,3-bis-(4-chloro-phenyl)-7-methyl-1,5,6,7-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4-dione. This reaction needs solvent toluene by heating. The reaction time is 15 hours. The yield is 36%.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: When using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
It is toxic if swallowed and irritating to respiratory system and skin, so people should not breathe dust. And it is also harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of soapsuds. If you want to contact this product,
NAME: 4-Methylphenol                
DESCRIPTION: p-Cresol, also 4-methylphenol, is a phenol, with formula (CH3) C6H4 (OH). It is a positional isomer; the other two are m-cresol and o-cresol. P-cresol is a major component in pig odor. 4-methylphenol is a component in human sweat. It is a component of human odor attractive to female mosquitoes.
HEALTH PROBLEM:  It may be fatal if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through skin. It can cause severe burns to every area of contact. It also affects central nervous system, liver, kidneys pancreas and cardiovascular system. Vapor is irritating to eyes and respiratory tract.
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides

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