Pesticides (Ch – Di)

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NAME:  Chlorotoluron    
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 3-(3-chloro-p-tolyl)-1,1-dimethylurea.  Molecular Formula is  C10H13ClN2O . Molecular Weight is 212.68.Flash point is 2C. Storing temperature is approximately 4C.  Water solubility is 74 mg l-1 (25 °C).Koc is 140.Vapour pressure is 1.7 ´ 10-5 Pa (25 °C). Log Kow is 2.5 (25 °C). pKa Non-ionised   Selective, non-systemic absorbed by roots and foliage. Acts by the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport. Usually supplied as a soluble concentrate or wettable granules that are mixed with water and applied as a spray. Chlorotoluron is a soil-acting herbicide and a contact foliar-spray against many broad-leaved and grass weeds of winter cereals, especially against Alopecurus myosuroides. It is combined with mecoprop to improve the control of Galium, Papaver and Veronica spp. The mode of action of chlorotoluron is the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Kidney and liver tumors have been observed in mice at high doses.
NAME Chlorpropham 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is isopropyl 3-chlorocarbanilate. Minimum purity is 975 g/kg.
Molecular formula is C10H12ClNO2. Molecular mass is 213.7. Melting point is 36-49 0C . Purity > 98%. Boiling point is 256-258 0C. Light brown crystallised solid. Relative density is 1.29. Readily soluble in most organic solvents, e.g. alcohols, ketones, esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. Moderately soluble in mineral oils (e.g. 100 g/kg in kerosene). Stability Stable to u.v. light. Decomposes above 150 ºC. Hydrolysed slowly in acidic and alkaline media. Biochemistry Mitosis inhibitor (microtubule organisation). Mode of action Selective systemic herbicide and growth regulator, absorbed predominantly by the roots and coleoptiles, and readily translocated acropetally. Uses Pre-emergence control of many annual grasses and some broad-leaved weeds in onions, leeks, garlic, shallots, alfalfa, clover, sugar beet, spinach, lettuce, endive, chicory, herbs, peas, beans, carrots, celery, black salsify, fennel, soya beans, cotton, rice, safflowers, sunflowers, cranberries, cane berries, ornamentals (especially bulb flowers), ornamental trees and shrubs, perennial grass-seed crops, etc. Also used as a sprouting inhibitor for ware potatoes, and as a sucker control agent in tobacco. Often used in combination with propham as a potato sprouting inhibitor, and in combination with other herbicides. Formulation types DP; EC; GR; HN. Chlorpropham is a carbamate ester. Carbamates are chemically similar to, but more reactive than amides. Like amides they form polymers such as polyurethane resins. Carbamates are incompatible with strong acids and bases, and especially incompatible with strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Flammable gaseous hydrogen is produced by the combination of active metals or nitrides with carbamates. Strongly oxidizing acids, peroxides, and hydroperoxides are incompatible with carbamates.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   Skin, eye and respiratory irritations/mild irritant. Reported toxic manifestations have included CNS depression, seizures, extrapyramidal effects, neuropathy, and gastrointestinal effects of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

NAME:  Chlorpyrifos 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide, acaricide, nematicides)
DESCRIPTION: Chlorpyrifos (Chemical name: O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphorothioate) is a crystalline organophosphate insecticide that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. Appearance: Technical chlorpyrifos is an amber to white crystalline solid with a mild sulfur odor. Molecular Weight is 350.62. Water Solubility is 2 mg/L at 25 C. Melting Point is 41.5-44 C.  Vapor Pressure is 2.5 mPa @ 25 C. Partition Coefficient is 4.6990 .  Chlorpyrifos is used inside the house mainly for pets. It is a very popular ingredient in dog shampoos and dog flea collars. It is also used in flea sprays that are used to keep fleas away from dogs. It is also used in the manufacture of termite treatment as well as in cockroach pesticides. It finds extensive use in agriculture as well as in industrial settings where large scale pesticides are needed to keep the place pest and insect free. A lot of this is used in cornfields while the crop is growing as well as in apple and grape farms, as well as to grow beets, wheat, cotton, peanuts and vegetables.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate, with potential for both acute toxicity at larger amounts and neurological effects in fetuses and children even at very small amounts. For acute effects, the EPA classifies chlorpyrifos as Class II: moderately toxic. Recent research indicates that children exposed to chlorpyrifos while in the womb have an increased risk of delays in mental and motor development at age 3 and an increased occurrence of pervasive developmental disorders such as ADHD. An earlier study demonstrated a correlation between prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure and lower weight and smaller head circumference at birth

NAME:  Chlorpyrifos Methyl           
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C7H7Cl3NO3PS. Formula Weight is 322.53. Melting point is 45.5-46.5°C. Flash point is  greater than100 °C. Storage temperature is approx. 4C. Colorless crystals. Corrosive to copper, brass, iron, and tin plate. Used as an insecticide. Hydrolyzed by strong acid and base.A chlorinated organophosphate derivative. Organophosphates are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. Chlorpyrifos-methyl is incompatible with strong acids and bases. Stable under normal storage conditions. Half-life in water at pH 8 is less than nine days at 25°C and three days at 35°C. It is hydrolysed more rapidly at higher pH. Undergoes rapid photodecomposition in UV light. Chlorpyrifos-methyl is a general use organophosphate insecticide registered in 1985 for use on stored grain (for protection of stored food, feed oil, and seed grains against injury from stored grain weevils, moths, borers, beetles and mealworms including granary weevil, rice weevil, red flour beetle, confused flour beetle, saw-toothed grain beetle, Indian meal moth, and Angoumois grain moth, lessor grain borers), seed treatment, grain bin and warehouse.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Chlorpyrifos-methyl is an organophosphorus compound which inhibits cholinesterase. It is of low toxicity but may be poisonous if swallowed. Keep the material out of reach of children and well away from foodstuffs, animal feed and their containers. If poisoning occurs call a physician. Atropine and atropine with pralidoxime are specific antidotes; artificial respiration may be needed.
NAME:  Chlorthal-dimethyl            
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide))
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate. This substance is a derivative of chlorthal. Molecular Formula  is C10H6Cl4O4. Molecular Weight  is 331.97. Melting point  is 155-156 ºC. Boling point 422C. Water solubility  is 0.05 g/100 mL. Colorless crystalline solid. Insoluble in water. Flash point 175C. Stable in the pure state stable to UV irradiation. Strong oxidation agent. It is presently approved for use on turf, ornamentals, strawberries, and agronomic crops including cotton, soybeans, and field beans. It is effective against smooth & hairy crabgrass, witchgrass, green & yellow foxtails, fall panicum & other annual grasses. It is also useful against certain broad-leaved weeds such as carpet weed purslane & common chickweed. It is tolerated by many crop plants.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The compound has a very low toxicity to mammals. The LD50 values for DCPA in rats range from greater than 3000 mg/kg to 12,500 mg/kg. DCPA in rabbits and beagle dogs has an LD50 of greater than 10,000 mg/kg. The dermal LD50 in rabbits is greater than 2000 mg/kg. DCPA is not a skin sensitizer. It is a mild eye irritant. The inhalation LC50 (4-hour) is greater than 5.7 mg/L for rats. Symptoms are  Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are possible if ingested. Cough, tachypnea, and wheezing are common after inhalation. Possible liver, thyroid & lung toxicant. Redness, swelling and pain may occur on skin. Irritation in eyes. 
NAME:  Chlorthiamid     
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is 2,6-dichlorothiobenzamide. Molecular mass is C7H5Cl2NS.
Molecular mass is 206.1. Melting point is 151-152C. Solubility in water (g/100) ml at 21C is 0.095. Melting Point is 151-152°C. Flash Point is 147.7°C. Boiling Point is 320.6°Cat760mmHg. Density is 1.473g/cm3 .Off-white solid in various form.  The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. Reacts with bases to form dichlorobenil. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol, through the skin and by ingestion.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The toxic effects of the herbicide chlorthiamid (2,6-dichlorothiobenzamide) and its major environmental metabolite 2,6-iichlorobenzamide (DCBA) were examined in the nasal passages of C57B1 mice following single ip injections. Chlorthiamid (12, 25, and 50 mg/kg) induced an extensive destruction of the olfactory region, similar to that previously observed with the analogue dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile). Necrosis of Bowman's glands was evident first, whereas degeneration and necrosis of the olfactory neuroep-ithelium developed less rapidly. The lesions were most severe in the dorsomedial region of the nasal cavity. At longer post-treatment intervals, the olfactory epithelium was replaced by a re-spiratory-like epithelium, and there was fibrosis of the lamina propria. DCBA was also toxic to the olfactory region (100 mg/kg), inducing necrosis of the Bowman's glands and the neuroepi-thelium in the dorsomedial region of the nasal cavity.
NAME:  Chlorthion   
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is O,O-dimethyl-O-(3-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-phosphorothioate and O,O-dimethyl-O-3-chloro-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothionate. Molecular Formula is C8H9ClNO5PS.  Molecular Weight is 297.65. Storing temperature 2 to 6C.  Index of Refraction is 1.586. Density is 1.499 g/cm3. Flash Point is 175.5 °C. Boiling Point is  366.6 °C at 760 mmHg. Percent Composition are C 32.28%, H 3.05%, Cl 11.91%, N 4.71%, O 26.88%, P 10.41%, S 10.77%. The pure compound as yellow crystal.  Chlorthion is activated to a potent cholinesterase inhibitor, chloroxon, in animals and plants. It is an active inhibitor of rat brain cholinesterase (DuBois et al., 1953). The molar I50 of chloroxon for human plasma cholinesterase (30 min. at 37°) in vitro is 4 ? 10-7 (Fallscheer & Cook, 1956). It’s in-vivo mammalian toxicity is high in comparison with its low in vitro activity; this is ascribed to slow absorption from the peritoneal cavity, thegastro-intestinal tract and its slow passage into the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, when administered intraperitoneally in large doses (1000 mg/kg body-weight) it can gain access to and inhibit the cholinesterase activity of the brain. As it is the 3-chloro-derivative of "methyl parathion" it will probably be metabolized in a similar manner to the latter compound by oxidative replacement of the sulfur by oxygen to produce the active form of the insecticide. Such a metabolite does not appear to have been described and there are no reports in the literature to indicate whether the chloronitrophenyl residue is excreted as 3-chloro-4-nitrophenol, as would be expected by analogy with parathion. Few hydrolytic products have been found in rat urine after the administration of this compound (Plapp & Casida, 1958). There are no details of its metabolism in plants
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. R50/53:Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Moderately toxic by ingestion, skin contact, and intraperitoneal routes. An insecticide. Decomposes and then ignites when heated above 270°C. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of Cl?, SOx, POx, and NO. LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 880, 980 orally (Gaines)
NAME Chlorthiophos
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: A reaction mixture of the three isomers: (i) O-2,4-dichlorophenyl-5-methylthiophenyl O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate; (ii) O-2,5-dichlorophenyl-4-methylthiophenyl O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate (major component); and (iii) O-4,5-dichlorophenyl-2-methylthiophenyl O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate. Synonyms are cm-s2957;CELATHION; CHLORTHIOPHOS I);CHLORTHIOPHOS STANDARD;chlorthiophos (bsi,iso,ansi);O-(2,5-Dichloro-4-(methylthio)phenyl);Chlorthiophos wettable powder granules;CHLORTHIOPHOS MIXTURE OF ISOMERS &;CHLORTHIOPHOS MIXTURE OF ISOMERS, PESTAN;O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate (predominant isomer). Molecular Formula is C11H15Cl2O3PS2. Formula Weight is 361.24.Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Yellow-brown liquid which tends to crystallize at less than 77F. Used as an insecticide and acaricide. No rapid reaction with air. No rapid reaction with water. Organophosphates, such as CHLORTHIOPHOS, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Classified as extremely hazardous by the World Health Organization(Non-Specific -- Organophosphorus Pesticide) Organic phosphorus insecticides are absorbed by the skin, as well as by the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They are cholinesterase inhibitors.
NAME:  Chlorthiophos sulfone         
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are Phosphorothioic acid,O-[2,5-dichloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl] O,O-diethyl ester. Synonymous are Phenol,2,5-dichloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)-, O-ester with O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate(8CI); Chlorthiophos I sulfone . Molecular Formula is C11H15Cl2O5PS2. Formula Weight is 393.24. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Oily yellow or brown liquid. Used as an insecticide, nematocide and mosquito larvicide. Incompatible with alkali chemicals. Hydrolyzes in alkali, isomerize in air [EPA, 1998]. Slightly soluble in water. Organothiophosphates, such as FENSULFOTHION, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. FENSULFOTHION may burn but may not ignite readily. Containers may explode in heat of fire. When heated highly toxic fumes of phosphorus and sulfur oxides are emitted. Incompatible with alkali chemicals. Hydrolyzes in alkali, isomerizes in air.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  FENSULFOTHION displays cholinesterase inhibiting properties. Death results primarily from respiratory arrest stemming from failure of the respiratory center, paralysis of respiratory muscles and intense bronchoconstriction.

NAME:  Chlorthiophos sulfoxide        
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide, acaricide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is (2,5-Dichloro-4-methylsulfanylphenoxy)-diethoxy-sulfanylidene-?5-phosphane . Synonyms of Chlorthiophos (CAS NO.21923-23-9) are Chlorthiofos I ; O-(2,5-Dichloro-4-(methylthio)phenyl)phosphorothioic Acid O,O-Diethyl Ester ; Phosphorothioic acid, O-[2,5-dichloro-4-(methylthio)phenyl] O,O-diethyl ester Molecular Formula is C11H15Cl2O4PS2. Molecular Weight is 377.24.  Surface Tension is 52.8 dyne/cm. Density is 1.38 g/cm3. Flash Point is 190.8 °C. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 61.65 kJ/mol. Boiling Point is 391.9 °C at 760 mmHg. Vapour Pressure is 5.38E-06 mmHg at 25°C. Chlorthiophos (CAS NO.21923-23-9) is yellow-brown liquid which tends to crystallize at less than 77F.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Poison by ingestion and skin contact. When Chlorthiophos (CAS NO.21923-23-9) is heated to decomposition ,it emits toxic fumes of Cl?, POx, and SOx. Organophosphates, such as Chlorthiophos, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. Classified as extremely hazardous by the World Health Organization(Non-Specific -- Organophosphorus Pesticide) Organic phosphorus insecticides are absorbed by the skin, as well as by the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They are cholinesterase inhibitors. Container may explode in heat of fire.


NAME:  Chlozolinate
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl (RS)-3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,3-oxazolidine-5-carboxylate. Molecular formula is C13H11Cl2NO5.  Molecular mass is 332.14. Colorless liquid. Melting point is 110-114 °C. Floating point is 100 °C. Storing temperature is 0-6°C. Chlozolinate (Serinal) is a dicarboximide fungicide used in southern European countries principally on grapes. Maximum residue levels have not yet been set by FAO/WHO and are under evaluation in the EU. Field trials have been carried out in Greece on two varieties of table grapes (Cardinal and Victoria) during two consecutive years to assess residues remaining after application according to good agricultural practice. Analysis using a multiresidue method with gas chromatography (ECD) showed that the parent compound decays with a first-order rate constant of 0.057 ± 0.011 day-1 and that residues had fallen below the proposed MRL of 5 mg/kg in all samples by 21 days postapplication (the proposed PHI). The contribution of the main metabolite, S1, to the total residue is generally <20%. Washing removes a substantial amount (up to 80%) of chlozolinate, which appears to be nonsystemic on grapes, thus reducing real consumer exposure to this pesticide.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Toxicity class is III. Toxicity in (Rat) is Oral LD50 >4500 mg/kg, (Mouse >10,000 mg/kg). Dermal LD50 >5000 mg/kg.

NAME:  Chrysene                      
CLASSIFICATION: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)
DESCRIPTION: Exist in white crystal state.   Molecular formula is C18H12. Molecular weight is 228.28. Boiling point is 448°C. Melting point: 254°C. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Chrysene is one of many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) found in cigarette smoke, coal tar pitch volatiles, coke oven emissions and diesel exhaust. In mice, chrysene was weaker than benzo[a]pyrene in activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR) in liver and lung to induce the synthesis of messenger RNAs for cytochrome P-450 1A1 and 1B1.In human prostate cancer cells, chrysene (and benzo[a]pyrene) partially inhibited the dihydrotestosterone-induced production of prostate-specific antigen protein and its mRNA, indicating an anti-androgenic effect from interaction with AhR. Administered i.p., chrysene caused liver and lung tumors, as well as malignant lymphoma, in mice. Dermal exposure caused skin carcinomas in mice. A dose-dependent lung tumor incidence was found for chrysene injected into the lungs of rats. The urinary excretion profiles of the monohydroxy and dihydroxy metabolites of some PAHs, including chrysene, have been reported for individual coke plant workers.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin.  Skin irritation with rash or sunburn (if exposed to sunlight) [potential occupational carcinogen]. Affected organs are skin and respiratory system. Chrysene causes cancer in laboratory animals when applied to their skin. This finding suggests that it is likely that people exposed in the same manner could also develop cancer. Because studies of chrysene are not complete, we don't know if chrysene that is breathed in or swallowed could cause cancer or if it can cause harmful effects other than cancer.

NAME:  Cinerin I     
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are Z)-(S)-3-(but-2-enyl)-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-enyl (1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate or (Z)-(S)-3-(but-2-enyl)-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-enyl (1R)-trans-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate  or (Z)-(S)-3-(but-2-enyl)-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-enyl (+)-trans-chrysanthemate. Molecular Weight is 316.43. Molecular Formula is C20H28O3.  An active insecticidal constituent of pyrethrum flowers. Oxidizes rapidly and becomes inactive in presence of air.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Sensitizer.May cause allergic reactions

NAME:  Cinerin II   
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are (Z)-(S)-3-(but-2-enyl)-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-enyl (E)-(1R,3R)-3-(2-methoxycarbonylprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
or (Z)-(S)-3-(but-2-enyl)-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-enyl (E)-(1R)-trans-3-(2 methoxycarbonylprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate or (Z)-(S)-3-(but-2-enyl)-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-enyl pyrethate. It is one of the components of pyrethrins. Molecular formula is C21H28O5. Molecular weight is 360.444g/mol. Boling point is 183C. Exist in liquid state and insoluble in water. Refractive index is 1.5182. Max absorption: 229 nm (molar extinction coefficient = 28,700 g-moles/l). Sol in alcohol, petroleum ether, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dichloride, nitromethane. Non-corrosive
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Sensitizer. May cause allergic reactions. The clinical manifestations of inhalation exposure to pyrethrins can be local or systemic. Localized reactors confined to the upper respiratory tract include rhinitis, sneezing, scratchy throat, oral mucosal edema, and even laryngeal mucosal edema. Localized reaction of the lower respiratory tract include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest pain. An asthmalike reaction occurs with acute exposures in sensitized patients. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis characterized by chest pain, cough, dyspnea, & bronchospasm may occur in an individual chronically exposed to pyrethrum and synthetic pyrethroids.

NAME:  Cinidon-ethyl                                  
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl (Z)-2-chloro-3-[2-chloro-5-(cyclohex-1-ene-1,2-dicarboximido)phenyl]acrylate. Molecular Formula is C19H17Cl2NO4. Molecular Weight is 394.25. Contact action, selective and acts by protox-inhibition. White crystalline powder. Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate. Odorless. Melting point  is 112°-113°. Vapor pressure is 1 x 10-7 mbar at 20°C. Water solubility is 57 µg/l at 20°C. Not highly flammable. Not considered explosive (no data required). The applicant made an acceptable case based on the structure of the active substance.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  TOXICITY: Tech (Rat): Oral LD50 >2200 mg/kg. Dermal >2000 mg/kg. Inhalation (4 h) >5.3 mg/l.  Liver and parathyroid gland tumours in rats.
NAME cis-Chlordane      
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:  Synonyms are a-Chlordane;cis-Chlordan;CIS-CHLORDANE;chlordan,cis-Chlordane cis;ALPHA-CHLORDAN;Chlordan, cis-;ALPHA-CHLORDANE;alpha(cis)-chlordane;?-chlordane solution. Molecular Formula is C10H6Cl8. Formula Weight is 409.78. Flash point -18 C. Storage temperature is  approx 4°C. 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Hypersensitive to stimulation, sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on skin. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, incoordination, tremor, mental confusion,hyperexcitable state.In severe cases: convulsions, seizures, coma and respiratory depression.
NAME Clodinafop-propargyl          
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is prop-2-ynyl (R)-2-[4-(5-chloro-3-fluoro-2-pyridyloxy) phenoxy]propionate. This substance is a derivative of clodinafop. Molecular Formula: is C17H13ClFNO4. Molecular Weight is 349.74. Melting point is 48-57°C.  Storage temperature is 0-6°C. Clodinafop-propargyl is in the chemical family Aryloxyphenoxy propionates. Clodinafop-propargyl is absorbed by the leaves and rapidly translocated to the growing points of leaves and stems. It interferes with the production of fatty acids needed for plant growth in susceptible grassy weeds. Clodinafop Propargyl is a post emergence systemic grass herbicide used for the control of annual grasses, canary grass, wild oats, annual rye grass in wheat. Mainly used in combination with the safener cloquintocet-mexyl.It is non phytotoxic to winter wheat. Breaks down rapidly in soil. The herbicide is mobile in soil. Do not apply within 15 metres of a wetland area or any body of water. This product is moderately toxic to aquatic organisms. Avoid contamination of aquatic systems during application.Crop injury may occur with tankmixes under extreme weather conditions. Keep in original container in a cool, dry, well ventilated room. Do not allow to freeze. For optimum results, apply herbicide to actively growing weeds. An early application will maximize crop yields by reducing weed competition. Weeds emerging after application of the herbicide will not be controlled.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Toxicity Class III as per WHO No specific antidote is available. This product contains materials that may cause severe pneumonitis if aspirated. Irritating to the skin and eyes. Treat symptomatically for ingestion and/or skin and eye contact.

NAME Clomazone       
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name are 2-(2-chlorobenzyl)-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one
or 2-(2-chlorobenzyl)-4,4-dimethylisoxazolidin-3-one. Clomazone is a colorless to light brown, viscous liquid above room temperature. When cooled, it forms a white crystalline solid. Molecular Weight is 239.70. Water Solubility is1100 mg/L. Melting Point is 25 C.  Vapor Pressure is 19.2 mPa at 25 C. Partition Coefficient is 2.5441.Adsorption Coefficient is 300. Clomazone is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in cotton, peas, pumpkins, soybeans, sweet potatoes, tobacco, winter squash, and fallow wheat fields. It can be applied early preplant, pre-emergent or preplant-incorporated, depending on the crop, geographical area, and timing. Selective herbicide, absorbed by the roots and shoots and translocated upward. Susceptible species emerge but are devoid of pigmentation. Uses Control of broad-leaved and grass weeds in soya beans, peas, maize, oilseed rape, sugar cane, cassava, pumpkins, and tobacco. Applied pre-emergence or pre-plant incorporated. Phytotoxicity Foliar contact or vapours may cause visual symptoms of chlorosis to nearby sensitive plants. Compatible with many other herbicides, e.g. metribuzin, linuron, chloramben, alachlor, trifluralin, pendimethalin, metolachlor, oryzalin or ethalfluralin. Selected tradenames: 'Command' (FMC); mixtures: 'Commence' (+ trifluralin) (FMC); 'Brasan' (+ dimethachlor) (Syngenta); 'Cozor Trio' (+ dimethachlor+ napropamide) (Syngenta).
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for male rats 2077, female rats 1369 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >2000 mg/kg. Practically non-irritating to eyes (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats 4.8 mg/l. NOEL (2 y) for rats 4.3 mg/kg daily. ADI 0.043 mg/kg (proposed). Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) II; EPA (formulation) III.

NAME:  Cloquintocet-mexyl                          
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ( RS)-1-methylhexyl (5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy)acetate. Molecular weight is 335.8. Molecular formula is C18H22ClNO3  . Colourless crystals. Melting point is 69.4 ºC; (tech., 61.4-69.0 ºC). Vapour pressure is 5.31 ´ 10-3 mPa (25 ºC) (OECD 104). Henry constant is 3.02 ´ 10-3 Pa m3 mol-1 (calc.). Density is 1.05 g/cm3 (20 ºC). Solubility in water is 0.59 mg/l (25 ºC). In ethanol 190, acetone 340, toluene 360, n-hexane 0.14, n-octanol 11 (all in g/l, 25 ºC). Stable in acidic and neutral media, hydrolysed in alkaline media. Accelerates the detoxification process of clodinafop-propargyl in cereals (Kreuz et al., Z. Naturforsch., 1991, 46c, 901-905). Improves cereal crop tolerance to the herbicide clodinafop-propargyl. Used as a herbicide safener in combination with Clodinafop-propargyl for selective control of annual grasses (Alopecurus myosuroides, Avena spp., Lolium spp., Phalaris spp., Poa trivialis, Setaria spp.) in small grain cereals. Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats and mice >2000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to eyes and skin (rabbits). May cause skin sensitisation (guinea pigs). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >0.935 mg/l air. NOEL (2 y) for rats 4 mg/kg b.w. daily; (18 mo) for mice 106.5 mg/kg b.w. daily; (1 y) for dogs 44 mg/kg b.w. daily. ADI 0.04 mg/kg b.w. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III EC hazard (R43)

NAME:  Coumaphos                     
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O-3-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate or 3-chloro-7-diethoxyphosphinothioyloxy-4-methylcoumarin.  Molecular formula is C14H16ClO5PS . Molecular Weight is 362.50. Water Solubility is in water is 1.5 mg/L at 20 C.Melting Point is 90-92 C. Vapor Pressure is 0.013m Pa at 20 C.  Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with alkalies, strong oxidising agents. Coumaphos is a non-volatile, fat-soluble phosphorothioate with ectoparasiticide properties: it kills insects and mites. It is well known under manufacturer brand-names as a dip or wash, used on farm and domestic animals to control ticks, mites, flies and fleas. It is also used to control varroa mites in honeybee colonies, though in many areas it is falling out of favor as the varroa develop resistance and as the residual toxicity effects are becoming better understood. Coumaphos is used to treat pests that interfere with livestock including fleas, ticks, scabies, cattle-grubs and many more. It is not used agriculturally or residentially.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Coumaphos is highly toxic by inhalation and ingestion, and moderately toxic by dermal absorption. As with all organophosphates, coumaphos is readily absorbed through the skin. Skin which has come in contact with this material should be washed immediately with soap and water and all contaminated clothing should be removed. Skin and eye contact with this insecticide may cause mild irritation, as well as cholinesterase-inhibition. Coumaphos does not cause skin sensitization allergies . Toxic symptoms in humans are largely caused by the inhibition of cholinesterase. Individuals with respiratory ailments, impaired cholinesterase production, or with liver malfunction may be at increased risk from exposure to coumaphos. High ambient temperatures or exposure to UV light may increase the toxicity of coumaphos . Signs of poisoning include diarrhea, drooling, difficulty in breathing, leg and neck stiffness . Some of the symptoms of acute inhalation of coumaphos begin immediately, or within four to 12 hours, of exposure. These include headaches, dizziness and incoordination. Moderate poisoning is characterized by muscle twitching and vomiting. Severe poisoning is indicated by diarrhea, fever, toxic psychosis, fluid retention (edema) of the lungs, and high blood pressure. Symptoms of sublethal poisoning may continue for 2 to 6 weeks.

NAME:  Crimidine  
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (rodenticides)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-chloro-N,N,6-trimethylpyrimidin-4-amine. Molecular Formula  is C7H10ClN3 . Molecular Weight  is 171.63.  Crimidine is a convulsant poison used as a rodenticide. May cause death from respiratory arrest. Irritation on skin and in eyes. Percent Composition are C 48.99%, H 5.87%, Cl 20.66%, N 24.48%. May cause serious CNS damage leading to fatal convulsions.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The diagnosis and treatment of a case of crimidine poisoning in a dog are described. Presenting signs were seizures and vomiting. The vomitus contained a purple coloured cereal grain. The signs and grain colour were suggestive for a rodenticide with convulsive effects. The diagnosis of crimidine poisoning was made by thin layer chromatography and was later confirmed by finding the source of the poison. Except for the administration of Vit B6, the specific antidote for crimidine, general treatment principles for poisoning were followed. The treatment of crimidine poisoning is time consuming and requires intensive care facilities.
NAME:  Crotoxyphos          
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-1-phenylethyl 3-(dimethoxyphosphinoyloxy) isocrotonate.  Molecular weight is 314.27.  Molecular Formula is C14H19O6P.  Boiling point is 365.6 °C at 760 mmHg. Flash Point is 188.5 °C. Density is 1.198 g/cm3.  Surface Tension is 40.2 dyne/cm. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 61.19 kJ/mol. Vapour Pressure is 1.55E-05 mmHg at 25°. Light straw-colored liquid. Compatible with most other insecticides. It is incompatible with most mineral carriers, except synthetic silicas such as 'Hisil 233' and 'Colloidal Silica K 320. Percent Composition are C 53.50%, H 6.09%, O 30.55%, P 9.86%. A cholinesterase inhibitor. Insecticide for external use on livestock.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  ACUTE TOXICITY  includes : DERMAL:  LD50 = 384 mg/kg (rabbit). ORAL:    LD50 = 52.8 mg/kg (rat); 90 mg/kg (mouse). In 90-day feeding trials no effect on growth nor histopathological change was observed: for male rats receiving 900 mg/kg diet; for females 300 mg/kg diet (62).
NAME:  Crufomate
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-(4-tert-butyl-2-chlorophenyl methyl methylphosphoramidate). Molecular formula is C12H19ClNO3P. Molecular weight is 291.7. Percent Composition are C 49.41%, H 6.57%, Cl 12.15%, N 4.80%, O 16.45%, P 10.62%. Melting point is 60-60.5C. Boiling point is 117-118C. Insoluble in water.  Combustible. Liquid formulations containing organic solvents may be flammable. Separated from strong bases, strong acids, and food and feedstuffs. Well closed. Keep in a well-ventilated room. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol, through the skin and by ingestion. White crystalline solid.  Melting point is  61.5°C. The commercial product is a yellow oil. A phosphoramidate insecticide. CRUFOMATE is combustible; liquid formulations containing organic solvents may be flammable. Incompatible with strongly basic and strongly acidic materials. Unstable over long periods in aqueous preparations or above140°F. Emits toxic fumes of POx, Cl2 and NOx when heated to decomposition.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Symptoms are Dizziness. Sweating. Laboured breathing. Nausea. Unconsciousness. Vomiting. Papillary constriction, muscle cramp, excessive salivation.


NAME:  Cyanazine  
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-(4-chloro-6-ethylamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)-2-methylpropiononitrile. Cyanazine (C9H13ClN6) is a triazine herbicide used for pre- and post-emergence weed control for corn, rapeseed and mixed grains. Between 500 000 and 1 000 000 kg are used annually in Canada.The solubility of cyanazine in water is 171 mg/L at 25°C; its vapour pressure at 20°C is 2.1 x 10-7 Pa.Cyanazine adsorbs to the soil. The degree to which it is adsorbed depends upon soil texture, water, and organic matter content. Cyanazine is considered to have strong leaching potential. It is degraded in soil primarily by microbial action, and its half-life in soil is reported to be between two and 10 weeks.Degradation products identified include the amide, two acids and the amine. Cyanazine is a triazine herbicide used as a pre and postemergent to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. By 1985 ninety-six percent of cyanazine was used on corn, three percent on cotton, and less than one percent on grain sorghum and wheat fallow. Cyanazine is classified by the EPA as a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) because of its teratogenicity and because it has been found in groundwater . Restricted Use Pesticides may be purchased and used only by certified applicators.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Cyanazine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of experimental animals. The major metabolite found in the faeces of treated rats (route and dose unspecified) was 2-hydroxycyanazine; the 4-amino-, N-acetylcysteinyl and corresponding amide and carboxy derivatives were also identified.Between 80 and 88% of doses of radioactively labelled cyanazine are eliminated from the rat and dog within four days, primarily in the urine and faeces. No information on the toxicity of cyanazine in humans was identified in the literature.
NAME:  Cyanofenphos
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is (RS)-(O-4-cyanophenyl O-ethyl phenylphosphonothioate).  Pure compound, white crystalline solid. Technical product, slightly yellowish solid  with characteristic odour.  Melting point is 83C. Molecular Formula is C15H14NO2PS. Formula Weight is 303.32. Flash point  is greater than 100 °C. Storing temperature  is  Approx  4°C. 
 Practically insoluble in water, soluble in ketones , hydrocarbons, methylene dichloride, chloroform, acetonitrile, dimethyl formamide, ethyl cellosolve. Slightly soluble in methanol, isopropanol, kerosene, soybean oil.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Toxicity data: LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 46 orally, 145 s.c., 45 i.p.; LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 60, 28.5 orally (Nishizawa).

NAME:  Cyanophos    
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O-4-cyanophenyl O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate. Molecular Formula isC9H10NO3PS. Formula Weight is 243.22. Flash point is  greater than 100 °C. Storage temperature is 0-6°C. Yellow to reddish-yellow transparent liquid. Used as an insecticide against rice stem borers and house flies. Organophosphates, such as CYANOPHOS, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. Container may explode in heat of fire. Fire and runoff from fire control water may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Unstable. Rapidly decomposes under alkaline conditions and upon exposure to light.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  CYANOPHOS is an organophosphorus insecticide. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Death may occur after a massive oral dose; with smaller accidental doses, onset of illness may be delayed.

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NAME:  Cyclafuramid   
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-cyclohexyl-2,5-dimethyl-3-furamide. Molecular Formula is C13H19NO2. Molecular Weight is 221.298. Also known as furosemide acid dimethyl Cyclohexylamine. Melting point 104-105 C,Boling point 150.4C.  Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents. Systemic Fungicide for seed treatment to be effective legislation to control Rhizoctonia solani, wheat flour casual black mold, bacteria nude black powder, snow rot Fusarium, Wo Helminthosporium arising from the disease, such as smut and onions. Wettable powder formulations are oil and SC.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute oral LD50> 6400mg/kg, rabbit acute oral LD50> 8000mg/kg. 

NAME:  Cycloate  
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is S-ethyl cyclohexyl(ethyl)thiocarbamate. Molecular Weight is 215.35. Molecular Formula is C11H21NOS. Melting point is 12C. Boling point is 303C. Density is 1.024gcm3. Specific heat of vaporization is 0.252 kj/g. Vapour pressure is 0.001mmHg. Flash point 139C. Colorless liquid.
Cycloate is a selective herbicide which will provide effective  preemergence control of nutsedge (Cyperus spp.) and annual grasses. Broadleaf weeds such as black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), hairy nightshade (Solanum villosum), henbit (Lamium spp.), lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, shepherdspurse (Capsella bursapastoris), and small stinging nettle (burning nettle) (Urtica urens) will be controlled if application is made when conditions are favorable for germination. 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DERMAL:  LD50 = >4640 mg/kg; no signs of toxicity were observed at 4640 mg/kg; non-irritating to the rabbit skin (rabbit; technical product, Ro-Neet 10-G) (29v,w). ORAL:    LD50 = 2000-3190 mg/kg (male rat, technical product); 3160-4100 mg/kg (female rat, technical product); 3160 mg/kg (male rat, Ro-Neet 6E); 3690 mg/kg (female rat, Ro-Neet 6E) (58). LD50 = >4640 mg/kg; a single oral dose of 4640 mg/kg produced a mild decrease in physical activity with no mortailty (rat, Ro-Neet 10-G) (29w). LD50 = 2710 mg/kg (male and female rat). EYES:    Non-irritating to the rabbit eye (Ro-Neet technical)

NAME:  Cyclopentadecanone 
CLASSIFICATION: Perfume stabilizer
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C15H28O. Molecular Weight is 224.39. Exist in white crystals form. Melting point is 61 - 63 C. Boling point is 120 C at 0.3 mmHg. Specific Gravity is 0.895 - 0.92. Insoluble in water (soluble in alcohol). Densit is  0.897. Flash Point 139C.  It is used in perfume as a scent and fixative. It is obviously the first importance in perfumery as it features the better properties in not only penetration but also persistency than any other known substance. It scents huge space without even small loss of weight. But synthetic musks should replace for natural must to protect animals. Muscone, 3-Methylcyclopentadecanone, is the major constituent of natural musk. The odoriferous nucleus of natural musk is the C-16 cyclic ketone (cyclopentadecanone). But synthetic musklile products are based on the symmetry of the three nitro groups or on polycyclic and cyclopentadecanone structure.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Birth or developmental effects, Cancer, Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive). Low oral and skin contact toxicity. A skin irritant. A flammable liquid. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

NAME:  Cycluron
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is 3-cyclooctyl-1,1-dimethylurea. Molecular Formula is C11H22N2O. Formula Weight is198.3. Flash point is greater than 100C. Cycluron's former use as a pre-emergence herbicide will have resulted in its release to the environment. If released to the atmosphere, cycluron is expected to exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the ambient atmosphere based on vapor pressure of 1X10-7 mm Hg. Vapor-phase cycluron is expected to be degraded by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 15 hours. Particulate-phase cycluron will be removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition. If released to soil, cycluron is expected to have moderate to high mobility based on estimated Koc values ranging from 88 to 160
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  On the basis of animal feeding studies these agents appear to have low systemic toxicity. Severity of intoxication should be based on clinical findings. Methemoglobinemia may be noted in large ingestions. If severe symptoms or signs of poisoning are evident, other than methemoglobinemia, the operation of an alternative or additional toxicant should be suspected. Eye exposure may result in ocular irritation. Irritation of the respiratory mucous membranes may be noted following prolonged heavy contact.

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NAME: Cyflufenamid 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (Z)-N-[?-(cyclopropylmethoxyimino)-2,3-difluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl] -2-phenylacetamide. Preventative and curative activity, acts by inhibiting the infection process. Molecular formula is C20H17F5N2O2. Molecular mass is 412.36. Often supplied as oil suspensions which are mixed with water and applied as a spray. No unacceptable risks to bystanders identified. Minimal risk of dietary exposure. Not explosive or oxidizing. Storing temperature 0 to 6C.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Kidney and liver toxicant.
NAME:  Cyhalofop-butyl         
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is butyl (R)-2-[4-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenoxy) phenoxy] propionate. This substance is a derivative of cyhalofop. Exist in Amber, Clear liquid form. Density is 0.966 g/ml. pH is 7.36. Flash point  is 45.4°C. Solubility  in water is 0.7, 0.44 ppm (20°C). Vapor pressure is 8.8x10-9 mmHg (20°C). Partition coefficient is 2069, log10Kow33.32 (25°C).  Henry’s law is 9.51x10-4 Pa m3 mol-1. Stable to metals and metal ions after stored at 50°C (2 weeks). Storing temperature is 0 to 6C.
Biochemistry Fatty acid synthesis inhibitor, by inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase). Selectivity between grasses and broad-leaves is attributed to the form(s) of ACCase present and the compartmentalisation of these forms within plant cells. Uses For post-emergence control of grass weeds in rice. Applied at 100 g/ha in tropical rice and 200-270 g/ha in temperate rice.
Oral Acute oral LD50 for male and female rats, and for male and female mice >5000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for male and female rats >2000 mg/kg. Inhalation LC50 for rats >5.63 mg/l. NOEL for male rats 0.8, female rats 2.5 mg/kg daily. Other Non-mutagenic in Ames, DNA repair and micronucleus tests. Not teratogenic. In in vivo cytogenetic studies, no induction of structural chromosomal aberration observed. Rat and rabbit studies indicate cyhalofop-butyl is not teratogenic. Toxicity class WHO (a. I. ) (IV).

NAME:  Cyhalothrin (Gamma)                 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is (S)-?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R,3R)-3-[(Z)-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropenyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate or (S)-?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis-3-[(Z)-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropenyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate. The unresolved isomeric mixture of this substance has the ISO common name cyhalothrin. Molecular Formula is C23H19ClF3NO3. Molecular Weight is 449.85. Storinf temperature is 0 to 6C. It is a powerful insecticide, the most active of the pyrethroid type. It is marketed under the names Nexide and Fentrol, and is widely used in treating agricultural crops as a broad spectrum insecticide. It works as a nerve toxin, and is poisonous to humans as well as insects. Do not contact this material, as it is readily absorbed thru the skin.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The most recent dietary, residential. And aggregate risk assessments for gamma cyhalothrin were conducted for the sue of insecticide in food handling establishment, use on okra and pistachios, and in ear tags on beef and non-lactating dairy cattle. In addition the number of high severity incident is low. Most of the cases occur at home in a residential setting .

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NAME:  Cyhalothrin I (lambda)        
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane-carboxylate . Molecular formula is            C23H19ClF3NO3. Technical Cyhalothrin is a yellow-brown viscous liquid with a mild odour.  Technical lambda-Cyhalothrin is a beige solid with a mild odour. Cyhalothrin is extremely stable to light and at temperatures below 220°C. Dilute aqueous solutions are subject to photolysis, which occurs at a moderate rate. Lambda Cyhalothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide used to control a wide range of pests in a variety of applications. Pests controlled include aphids, Colorado beetles and butterfly larvae . Crops on which it may be applied include cotton, cereals, hops, ornamentals, potatoes, vegetables or others . It may also be used for structural pest management or in public health applications to control insects such as cockroaches, mosquitoes, ticks and flies which may act as disease vectors. Lambda cyhalothrin is available as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder or ULV liquid , and is commonly mixed with buprofezin, pirimicarb, dimethoate or tetramethrin . It is compatible with most other insecticides and fungicides
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Lambda cyhalothrin can have corrosive effects on both the skin and eyes. Workers handling it reported facial tingling and burning, which lasted six hours to two days. Ingested lambda cyhalothrin is moderately toxic, although mammals are found to metabolize and excrete lambda cyhalothrin rapidly. The EPA identifies lambda cyhalothrin as a group D carcinogen, an undetermined human carcinogen. Exposure to lambda cyhalothrin may occur through inhalation, dermal absorption, or ingestion. Inhalation may cause burning sensations, convulsions, coughing, labored breathing, shortness of breath, and sore throat. Contact with the skin and eyes may cause redness and pain. Ingestion can cause abdominal pain and coughing . Extreme levels of exposure can also cause seizures and coma . The effects of respiratory diseases and skin disorders may intensify with exposure to lambda cyhalothrin .

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NAME:  Cymiazole
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-[(2EZ)-3-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene]-2,4-xylidine. Molecular Formula isC12H14N2S.  Molecular Weight is 218.32.  Cymiazole is an iminophenyl thiazolidine derivative, active against acari (mites and ticks). In veterinary medicine, Cymiazole hydrochloride is recommended for the control of varroosis, the bee disease caused by the mite Varroa destructor that endangers bee-keeping all over the world. Cymiazole is a systemic miticide, meaning that it works through the bees’ haemolymph . The intended pharmaceutical formulation, 17.5% granulate of Cymiazole hydrochloride, is dissolved in water to obtain a0.35% aqueous solution. The freshly prepared solution is applied either topically (as a drop onto the beeways) or orally (mixed into the winter feed for bees). Doses of twice 100–350 mg Cymiazole hydrochloride/hive(25–35 mg/occupied beeway) at a 7-day interval are recommended for topical administration. In the winter feed, approximately 500–700 mg cymiazole hydrochlorideare administered per hive.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Cymiazole is an iminophenyl thiazolidine derivative, active against acari (mites and ticks). In veterinary medicine, cymiazole hydrochloride is recommended for the control of varroosis, the bee disease caused by the mite Varroa destructor that endangers bee-keeping all over the world. Cymiazole is a systemic miticide, meaning that it works through the bees’ haemolymph. The freshly prepared solution is applied either topically (as a drop onto the beeways) or orally (mixed into the winter feed for bees). Doses of twice 100–350 mg cymiazole hydrochloride/hive(25–35 mg/occupied beeway) at a 7-day interval are recommended for topical administration.

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NAME:  Cymoxanil
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-[(2EZ)-3-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene]-2,4-xylidine. Molecular Formula is C12H14N2S. Molecular Weight  is 218.32. Apitol is a granular product that is mixed with syrup and fed to adult bees. Two applications are made 7 days apart. The best results are achieved when there is little brood in the hive, but with temperatures above 10°C. Apitol should not be used during the honey flow. Cymiazole is a systemic miticide, meaning that it works through the bees’ haemolymph. Cymiazole is a non-volatile, water soluble chemical, and therefore should easily make its way into honey. However, there do not appear to be any reports of Cymiazole residues in either commercial honey or wax. This is possibly because it breaks down in honey provided it is fed in the autumn outside the honey production period. In one study the residues reduced from 2.45 ppm to 0.23ppm after 112 days. While Cymiazole is a systemic miticide, the amount of the chemical in bees’ haemolymph decreases quickly.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Adult bee deaths have been reported with Apitol. Cymiazole was found to be moderately toxic to honey bees when ingested at a rate of 3500ppm. Cymiazole fed to bees reduced development of hypopharyngeal glands and increased the amount and acidity of rectal contents.

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NAME Cyphenothrin cis-             
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2,2-Dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl) cyclopropanecarboxylic acid cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester. Synonymous are (RS)-a-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis,trans-chrysanthemate; a-cyano-m-phenoxybenzyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate; 3-phenoxy-a-cyanobenzylchrysanthemate. Molecular Formula is C24H25NO3. Molecular Weight is 375.46. Percent Composition are C 76.77%, H 6.71%, N 3.73%, O 12.78%. Synthetic pyrethroid. Yellowish viscous liquid. d2525 1.083. Vapor pressure at 30°: 3.11 ´ 10-6 mm Hg. Viscosity at 30°: 808.8 cP. Density is 1.083. Mode of action: Non-systemic insecticide with contact and stomach action. Acts on the nervous system of the insects, and has a rapid knock-down effect, in addition to a good residual effect. Also exhibits repellent properties. Control of houseflies, midges and cockroaches in household use, public health, and industrial use. Also controls insects that attack wood and fabric. Incompatible with alkaline materials.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral: Acute oral LD50 for male rats 318, female rats 419 mg/kg (in corn  oil). Skin and eye: Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >5000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to skin; Minimal irritation to eyes. Inhalation: LC50 (3 h) for rats >1850 mg/m3. Toxicity class: WHO (a. I. ) II; EPA (formulation) II.
NAME:  Cyphenothrin trans-
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical Name is (RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS,3RS;1RS,3SR)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate. Molecular formula is C24H25NO3
Relative molecular mass is 375.47. d,d,trans-Cyphenothrin is synthetic pyrethroid, acting by contact poisoning. It is used in public health against flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, etc. Melting point: 43.8 °C. Boiling point: 154°C at 0.1 mm Hg.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The proposer provided written confirmation that the toxicological and ecotoxicological data included in the summary below were derived from d,d,trans-cyphenothrin having impurity profiles similar to those referred to in the table above.
NAME:  Cyprazine                  
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical Formula:  C9H14ClN5. Molecular Weight is  227.6939.  Human overdose information is limited. Triazine and triazine-related herbicides inhibit aliphatic amino acid synthesis in plants. This pathway does not exist in mammalian species, and this class of herbicides generally has a low degree of mammalian toxicity in animal studies.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Acute systemic toxicity is unlikely unless large amounts have been ingested. Irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract.
NAME:  Cyproconazole  
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is (2RS,3RS;2RS,3SR)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-cyclopropyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-ol. Molecular weight is C15H18ClN3O.Molecular mass is 291.8. Systemic with protective, curative and eradicant action. Disrupts membrane function. An ergosterol-biosynthesis inhibitor. Exisit in fine powder form. Often supplied as soluble concentrates that are mixed with water and applied as a spray. Density is 1.32. Systemic fungicide with protective, curative, and eradicant action. Absorbed rapidly by the plant, with translocation acropetally. Uses Foliar, systemic fungicide for control of Septoria, rust, powdery mildew, Rhynchosporium, Cercospora, and Ramularia in cereals and sugar beet, at 60-100 g/ha; and rust, Mycena, Sclerotinia and Rhizoctonia in coffee and turf.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Possible liver toxicant. Oral Acute oral LD50 for male rats 1020, female rats 1333, male mice 200, female mice 218 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats and rabbits >2000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to skin and eyes (rabbits). Non-irritating to skin, and not a skin sensitiser (guinea pigs). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >5.65 mg/l air. NOEL (1 y) for dogs 1 mg/kg b.w. daily; (2 y) for rats 1 mg/kg b.w. daily. Other Not mutagenic in the Ames assay. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) II EC hazard (R22)

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NAME:  Cyprodinil   
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is  4-cyclopropyl-6-methyl-N-phenylpyrimidin-2-amine. Molecular formula is C14H15N3. Relative molecular mass is 225.3 g/mol. Cyprodinil, a member of the anilinopyrimidine group, is a systemic foliar broad spectrum fungicide. It acts as an inhibitor of methionine biosynthesis and interferes in the fungal life cycle by inhibition of penetration and by disruption of mycelial growth in the plant. It has registered uses in many countries on many crops (e.g. agriculture, horticulture, viticulture). Uses As a foliar fungicide for use in cereals, grapes, pome fruit, stone fruit, strawberries, vegetables, field crops and ornamentals; and as a seed dressing on barley. Controls a wide range of pathogens, such as Tapesia yallundae and T. acuformis, Erysiphe spp., Pyrenophora teres, Rhynchosporium secalis, Botrytis spp., Alternaria spp., Venturia spp. and Monilinia spp., at 150-750 g/ha. Formulation types EC; WG. Compatibility Some incompatibility problems have been reported when added to liquid formulations, but not if mixed in reverse order.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute Oral Toxicity (rat): LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Toxicity Category: IV. Acute Dermal Toxicity (rabbit): LD50 > 2000 mg/kg. Toxicity Category: III. Inhalation (rat): LD50 > 2.89 mg/liter. Toxicity Category: IV. Primary Eye Irritation: Minimally irritating. Toxicity Category: III. Primary Skin Irritation: Slightly irritating. Toxicity Category: IV. Dermal Sensitization: Negative
NAME:  Cyprofuram      
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is (RS)-?-[N-(3-chlorophenyl)cyclopropanecarboxamido]-?-butyrolactone. Molecular Formula is C14H14ClNO3. Molecular Weight is 279.72. Flash point is greater than 100C. Exist in liquid state. Boling point is 491C. Insoluble in water.  Systemic, inhibits zoospore release. Cyprofuram showed the highest activity against resistant strains
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Signal word: WARNING. Toxicity Class: II. Toxicity: (Rat): Oral LD50 174 mg/kg. (Rabbit): Dermal >1000 mg/kg.
NAME:  Cyromazine    
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is  N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine. Molecular Weight is 166.2. Molecular Formula is C6H10N6.White crystalline powder and pale yellow liquid. Melting point 233C. Boling point 100C. An insect growth regulator acting via disruption of moulting and pupation. Applied to leaves it exhi-bits a strong translaminar effect; applied to soil it is taken up by the roots and translocated. It is one of the first insect growth regulators that was commercialised, with major usage in speciality crops but also in animal health.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  A human health risk assessment has been conducted for cyromazine because of adverse effects reported in animal studies. This risk assessment specifically addresses the potential exposure of workers performing the mixing and application of cyromazine to chicken manure and the field workers who spread the treated manure as a fertilizer. The toxicology endpoints used in the assessment were developmental toxicity for acute exposure, systemic toxicity for repeated chronic exposure and oncogenicity for potential lifetime exposure. Another potential adverse effect addressed in this risk assessment was in the area of reproductive toxicity, based on the results reported in achronic dog study. Several rabbit developmental toxicity studies were conducted using cyromazine. The lowest No Observable Effect Level (NOEL) was established at 5 mg/kg/day for fetal malformations. The NOEL for maternal toxicity was 10 mg/kg/day, based on decreased body weight gain. The NOEL of 5 mg/kg/day was used to calculate the margins of safety for potential acute exposure to cyromazine. Chronic toxicity from repeated exposure to cyromazine was identified in a 6 month dog study. Toxicity to the seminiferous tubules and a concomitant decrease in spermatogenesis was observed in male animals. The NOEL for these endpoints was 9.27 mg/kg/day.
NAME: d-(cis-trans)-Phenothrin-I    
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: IUPAC chemical name is 3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS, 3RS;  1RS, 3SR)-2, 2- dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl) cyclopropanecarboxylate.  The alternative nomenclature of (1RS)- cis ,  trans - has also been used to designate the stereoisomers and will be used in this data sheet. Molecular formula is C23H26O3. Molecular mass is 350.5.  d-Phenothrin is a yellow to yellow-brown liquid, with a density of 1.061 g/cm3 (25 °C) and  a refractive index of 1.5482. Soluble in water (25 °C) is 2 mg/L. Soluble in organic solvents.
d-Phenothrin is hydrolysed by alkalis but is stable in neutral or weakly acidic media.  Unstable in most solvents except methanol, ethyl cellosolve, o-cresol and dimethylsulfoxide.  Unstable to ultra violet irradiation and has a short residual life on pre-harvest application.  However, d-phenothrin applied to wheat after harvest showed only slight degradation after six months storage at 30 °C.  When protected from light no breakdown of d-phenothrin was observed after one year at room temperature. d-Phenothrin has a vapour pressure of 0.16 mPa at 20 °C.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The symptoms of poisoning are typical of those of pyrethroids without a cyano-substituent.  The proposed mechanism of action is due to the reversible binding of d-phenothrin to the sodium channels of the neuronal membrane, in this way modifying the permeability of the membrane to ions. Sprague Dawley rats or ddY mice exposed to concentrations of less than 0.21 mg (1R)-phenothrin/L, for 4 hours/day, five days/week for four weeks, showed no adverse effect on behaviour, growth, clinical chemistry or organ histopathology.

NAME: d-(cis-trans)-Phenothrin-II
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms: CYCLOPROPANECARBOXYLIC ACID, 2,2-DIMETHYL-3-(2-METHYL-1-PROPENYL)-(3-PHENOXYPHENYL) METHYL ESTER, (1R);D-(CIS-TRANS)-PHENOTHRIN;D-(CIS AND TRANS)PHENOTHRIN;D-PHENOTHRIN(R);(1R-trans)-2,2-Dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester;3-PHENOXYBENZYL(1R)-CIS,TRANS-2,2-DIMETHYL-3-(2-METHYLPROP-1-ENYL)-CYCLOPROPANECARBOXYLATE;3-PHENOXYBENZYL-(+/-)-CIS,TRANS-CHRYSANTHEMATE;3-PHENOXYBENZYL D-CIS,TRANS-CHRYSANTHEMATE. In 2005, the EPA required Hartz Mountain Industries to give off uses of several flea and tick products containing phenothrin which were related to a series of adverse reactions, such as salivation, hair loss, tremors, and numerous deaths in cats. In the short term,  new warning labels on the products wrer called for by the agreement. Until March 31, 2006, the sale and distribution of Hartz's phenothrin-containing flea and tick products for cats has been stopped. But Hartz flea and tick products for dogs were not influnced by EPA's product cancellation order, and Hartz continues to use phenothrin  in many of its flea and tick products for dogs in a concentration of 85.7%. Phenothrinis a synthetic pyrethroid which can kill adult fleas and ticks as well as head lice in humans. d-phenothrin is used as a component of aerosol insecticides for domestic use
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The JMPR (JMPR 1984) compared impurity profiles and toxicology of phenothrin and d-phenothrin. The level of d-phenothrin is higher and the levels of impurities are generally lower in the modern (2000-2001) 5-batch analysis than in the batches recorded in 1984. The JMPR concluded that: “Data presented indicate the similarity in metabolism and toxicity of phenothrin and d-phenothrin, thus indicating that data for phenothrin can be used to support the toxicological data base for d-phenothrin
NAME: Dazomet
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide, herbicide, nematicides)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are 3,5-dimethyl-1,3,5-thiadiazinane-2-thione or tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione. Molecular Formula is C5H10N2S2. Molecular Weight is 162.27.  Density is 1.3. Melting point is 104-105 C. Water solubility is 0.1 g/100 mL at 18 C. Dazomet is a non-selective soil fumigant with fungicidal, herbicidal and nematicidal properties. Soil fumigants form gasses when applied to soil. Once in the soil, the fumigants work by controlling pests that can disrupt plant growth and crop production. When dazomet is applied, it is quickly broken down into several degradates; the major degradate being methyl isothiocyanate (MITC). MITC is highly volatile and is responsible for the fumigant properties of dazomet. Dazomet is used on a wide range of sites including golf greens or tees, nonbearing crops, turf sites, ornamental sites, field nurseries, compost piles, potting soils, and strawberries and tomatoes (in California only).
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Redness. Pain in eyes. Acute inhalation exposures to MITC of 22 parts per billion (ppb) or greater for residential bystanders and occupational handlers exceed the Agency’s level of concern. Such exposures could cause eye irritation, systemic, or respiratory effects. Eye irritation is protective of other human health effects and acts as a warning sign for potentially more adverse systemic effects. Dazomet is acutely toxic to mammals, and birds that could be exposed to unincorporated dazomet granules. Exposure to terrestrial organisms such as birds and mammals could occur two ways, as either oral exposure to dazomet granules or by the inhalation route of exposure to the breakdown product, MITC. Potential exposure to aquatic organisms may occur from surface runoff/leaching and/or volatilization and deposition of MITC in water bodies. MITC is acutely toxic to aquatic invertebrates and fish.
NAME: Decachlorobiphenyl 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is 1,2,3,4,5-pentachloro-6-(2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorophenyl) benzene . Molecular Formula is C12Cl10 •Molecular weight is 498.658. Flash point is 100C. Storing temperature is 2 to 8C. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers. Most applications used oily or waxy mixtures of different PCBs that differ from each other in the number and location of chlorine atoms around the aromatic carbon rings. More than 1.5 billion pounds of PCBs were manufactured in the United States (mostly by Monsanto) before their production was cancelled in 1977. Studies suggest that some PCBs interfere with mammal and bird reproduction, and may disturb development or cause cancer in humans. Despite efforts to ban the use and reduce the emissions of PCBs, their disappearance from the environment is either slow or nonexistent. PCBs bioaccumulate and have a tendency to travel to distant places through the air as vapors or on dust particles. In fact, surprisingly large concentrations of PCBs are found in places where they were never used. For example, the animals and people living in the Arctic have high body burdens of PCBs due to the process of global distillation that has brought PCBs from the lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia. Decachlorobiphenyl contains chlorine atoms on every carbon in the aromatic rings. It is the heaviest PCBs, meaning that it is less volatile and prone to accumulate in soil and sediment.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity to invertebrates and fish in the water column .Accumulation in sediments and potential hazard to sediment-dwelling organisms at concentrations greater than 21.5 &micro;g kg-1 (dry weight) of total PCBs. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in fish, birds and Annex II sea mammals with known sublethal toxicological effects. Endocrine disruption in birds and sea mammals posing a hazard to populations of these animals.
NAME: Demephion  
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide. acaricide)
DESCRIPTION: Reaction mixture of O,O-dimethyl O-2-methylthioethyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dimethyl S-2-methylthioethyl phosphorothioate. Molecular Formula is C10H26O6P2S4. Molecular Weight is 432.52. Flash point is  -18 C. Storing temperature is 2-8C.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Banned for a variety of reasons such as high acute toxicity, possible carcinogen, long residual effects and reproductive and fetotoxic effects. Baned High acute toxicity, high risk to users.
NAME: Demeton-S
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O,O-diethyl S-2-ethylthioethyl phosphorothioate. Molecular formula is C8H19O3PS2. Molecular mass is 258.3. Appearance:Demeton-s-methyl is a pale yellow oil that has a sulfur-like odor. Water Solubility is 3.3 g/l at 20 degrees C. Rapidly soluble in common polar organic solvents including dichloromethane, 2-propanol, toluene and n-hexane. Vapor Pressure is 40 mPa. Partition Coefficient is 1.32. Storing temperature 0 to 6C. Water soluble. DEMETON-S-METHYL SULFOXIDE may be rapidly hydrolyzed by alkali .  Organophosphates such as DEMETON-S-METHYL SULFOXIDE are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. It is recommended for use on alfalfa, almonds, apples, apricots, barley, beans, blackberries, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, clover cotton, dewberries, eggplant, filberts, gooseberries, grapefruit, grapes, hops, lemons, lettuce, loganberries, muskmelons, nectarines, otas, oranges, peaches, pears, peas, pecans, peppers, pineapples, plums, potatoes, raspberries, sorghum, strawberries, sugar beets, walnuts, wheat, conifers and ornamentals. It is generally applied at 140-800 g/ha.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Groups of male rats were given doses of 0, 1, 5 or 10 mg/kg bw for up to six months. Increased mortality was observed at the two highest doses only; no ill-effects were observed at 1 mg/kg/day. Effects of short term exposure may cause effects on the nervous system , resulting in convulsions, respiratory failure. Cholinesterase inhibitor. Exposure at low levels may result in death. The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated. Effects of long term exposure may cause may have effects on the nervous system , resulting in respiratory failure. Cholinesterase inhibitor; cumulative effect is possible: see acute hazards/symptoms.

NAME: Demeton-S-methylsulfon        
CLASSIFICATION:  Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S-2-ethylsulfinylethyl O,O-dimethyl phosphothioate.  Molecular Formula is C6H15O5PS2. Molecular Weight is 262.28. Storing temperature is 2 to 6C.  Boiling point is 106oC at 0.013 hPa. Melting point is -10C. Stable for 8 months at ambient temperature (as a 50% solution). The technical material is unstable. Flash Point:191.8 °C.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Poison by ingestion, inhalation, intraperitoneal, and intravenous routes. Moderately toxic by skin contact. Mutation data reported. An insecticide. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of POx and SOx. 21 Harmful in contact with skin. Toxic if swallowed.  Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
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NAME: Desbromo-bromobutide          
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is Butanamide,3,3-dimethyl-N-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl). Molecular Formula is C15H23 N O. Molecular Weight is 233.35. Storage Temperature is 0-6C.  Flash Point is 271.6C. Boiling Point is 525.5 C at760mmHg. Density is 1.364g/cm3. Other names 2-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-N-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)butanamide , 2-bromo-N-(a,a-dimethylbenzyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide , 74712-19-9 (CAS number) , 74712199 (CAS number without hyphens) , Bromobutide , Bromobutide
HEALTH PROBLEMS: SIGNAL WORD: CAUTION. TOXICITY CLASS: III. TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 >5000 mg/kg. Dermal LD50 >5000 mg/kg. HANDLING/STORAGE CAUTIONS: Avoid contact with mouth, eyes, and skin. Store in original container away from food and feed.

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NAME: Desmedipham
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl 3-phenylcarbamoyloxycarbanilate. Molecular weight is is 300.31.  Pigweed species, lamb's-quarters, wild mustard, wild buckwheat, green and yellow foxtail. Other weeds like ragweed species, nightshade species, kochia, goosefoot and stinkweed will be controlled when application of desmedipham/phenmedipham is made following treatment with another preplant or preemergence herbicide. Desmedipham/ phenmedipham is readily absorbed by foliage where it inhibits photosynthesis in the chloroplasts of leaf cells. Postemergence beginning at the 2 true-leaf stage of sugar beets. Up to the 2- or 4-leaf stage of weeds depending upon species. Best control is exhibited on very small, actively growing weeds. Soil half-life of desmedipham is less than 1 month and of phenmedipham is 25-30 days. Desmedipham/phenmedipham may cause temporary growth retardation and/or chlorosis or tip-burn to sugar beets when applied to stressed plants. Normal growth is resumed in 10 days after application.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DERMAL LD50 = >318 mg a.i. (as e.c.)/kg (rabbit). LD50 = >2,025 <10,250 mg/kg (rabbit, Betanex-16% desmedipham) .  Some irritation may occur after prolonged skin contact with Betanex (16.0% desmedipham). ORAL: LD50 = 10,260 mg a.i./kg (rat). LD50 = 3,720 mg/kg (rat), 2,150 mg/kg (dog-minimum lethal dose) (Betanex-16% desmedipham) .

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NAME: Desmetryn
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N2-isopropyl-N4-methyl-6-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine. Molecular Formula is C8H15N5S. Molecular Weight is 213.3. Flash point is11 C.  Storage temperature is Approx 4C. Selective, absorbed by leaves and roots, photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor. Usually supplied as a wettable powder. Stability at 54ºC (-/M/1.9). After storage at 54 + 2ºC for 14 days.  A white, crystalline compound with a melting point of 84-86°C; used as a postemergence herbicide for broadleaf and grassy weeds.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: testing on rats and mice indicate adverse effects on prostate, liver and kidneys. No carcinogenic effects reported.


NAME:  Di-n-butylphthalate               
CLASSIFICATION: Di-n-butyl phthalate has been used to make soft plastics, carpet backing, paints, glue, insect repellents, hairspray, nail polish, and rocket fuel.
DESCRIPTION: Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer. It is also used as an additive to adhesives or printing inks. It is soluble in various organic solvents, e.g. in alcohol, ether and benzene. DBP is also used as an ectoparasiticide. Di-n-butyl phthalate does not evaporate easily, but small amounts do enter into the air as a gas. Di-n-butyl phthalate also gets into air by attaching to dust particles. In air, di-n-butyl phthalate usually breaks down within a few days. Di-n-butyl phthalate does not dissolve easily in water, but can get into water by attaching to dirt particles. In water and soil, bacteria break down di-n-butyl phthalate. This may happen in a day, or may take up to a month. The length of time it takes to break down di-n-butyl phthalate in soil or water depends on the kind of bacteria present.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Adverse effects on humans from exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate have not been reported. In animals, eating large amounts of di-n-butyl phthalate can affect their ability to reproduce. Di-n-butyl phthalate can cause death of unborn animals. In male animals, sperm production can decrease after eating large amounts of di-n-butyl phthalate. However, when exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate stops, sperm production seems to return to near normal levels. Exposure to high levels of di-n-butyl phthalate might cause similar effects in humans as in animals, but this is not known. There is no evidence that di-n-butyl phthalate causes cancer.

Di-n-butyl phthalate appears to have relatively low toxicity, and large amounts are needed to cause injury. The levels of di-n-butyl phthalate which cause toxic effects in animals are about 10,000 times higher than the levels of di-n-butyl phthalate found in air, food, or water. If you were to eat di-n-butyl phthalate at levels equal to those at which effects were seen in animals, about 1-2% of what you eat every day would have to be di-n-butyl phthalate. Large amounts of di-n-butyl phthalate repeatedly applied to the skin for a long time may also cause mild irritation.

NAME:  Di-n-hexyl phthalate  
CLASSIFICATION: Substances containing DnHP may be used in traffic cones, toys, vinyl gloves, weather stripping, flea collars, shoes, and conveyor belts used in food packaging operations.
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C20H30O4. Molecular Weight is 334.45. Boling point is 185-187°C 0,5mm. Density is 1,01 g/cm3. Flash point is 185-187°C/0.5mm. Yellow-brown oily viscous liquid with a slight aromatic odor. Insoluble in water. Insoluble in water. DI-N-HEXYL PHTHALATE is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides. DI-N-HEXYL PHTHALATE can react with oxidizing materials and strong alkaline materials. DI-N-HEXYL PHTHALATE is combustible.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Symptoms of exposure to DI-N-HEXYL PHTHALATE may include eye irritation, skin irritation or drying progressing to dermatitis, nausea, vomiting and dizziness.
NAME: Di-n-nonyl phthalate          
CLASSIFICATION: Used in flexible PVC.
DESCRIPTION:  Molecular Formula is C26H42O4. Formula Weight is 418.61. Boling point is 279-287 °C(lit.). Density  is 0.98 g/mL at 20 °C(lit.). Refractive index  is n20/D 1.486. Flash point is 216°C.  Water Solubility is <1 g/L (20 ºC). Clear yellow-brown oily liquid. Odorless colorless liquid. Flammable. Hydrolyzed by strong mineral acids and strong alkalis. Dinonyl phthalate is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Can generate electrostatic charges [Handling Chemicals Safely, 1980. p. 250]. Moderately toxic by ingestion.
NAME:  Di-n-octyl phthalate
CLASSIFICATION: Dimethyl phthalate is used in solid rocket propellants, lacquers, plastics, safety glasses, rubber coating agents, molding powders, insect repellants, and pesticides.
DESCRIPTION: Dimethyl phthalate is a phthalate with molecular formula (CH3)2(C6H4(COO)2). It is the methyl ester of phthalic acid. Dimethyl phthalate is an ectoparasiticide and has many other uses, including in solid rocket propellants, plastics, and insect repellants. Molecular Formula is C24H38O4. Molecular Weight is 390.56. Boling point is 380 °C. Density is 0.980 g/mL at 20 °C(lit.). Refractive index is n20/D 1.485. Flash point is 219 °C. A clear liquid with a mild odor. Slightly less dense than water and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Flash point 430°F. The primary hazard is the threat to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. As a liquid, can easily penetrate the soil and contaminate groundwater and nearby streams. Eye contact may produce severe irritation and direct skin contact may produce mild irritation. Used in the manufacture of a variety of plastics and coating products. Insoluble in water. DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE reacts with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen may be generated by mixing with alkali metals and hydrides. Can generate electrostatic charges by swirling or pouring [Handling Chemicals Safely, 1980. p. 250]. Produces no ill effects at normal temperatures but may give off irritating vapor at high temperature.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute exposure to dimethyl phthalate, via inhalation in humans and animals, results in irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Acute animal tests in rats have shown dimethyl phthalate to have moderate acute toxicity from oral and dermal exposures.
NAME: Di-n-propyl phthalate         
CLASSIFICATION: Used to make plasticizers and polymer additives
DESCRIPTION:  Boling point is 317.5 °C(lit.). Density is1.078 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.). Refractive index  is n20/D 1.497(lit.). Flash point  is greater than 230 F. Clear colorless liquid. Colorless liquid. DIPROPYL PHTHALATE is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides. Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may form when heated to decomposition. Strong oxidizers.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Flash point data for DIPROPYL PHTHALATE are not available. DIPROPYL PHTHALATE is probably combustible. No LD50/LC50 information found relating to normal routes of occupational exposure. Investigated as a reproductive effector.

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NAME:  Dioxabenzofos   
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name are (RS)-2-methoxy-4H-1,3,2?5-benzodioxaphosphinine 2-sulfide or (RS)-2-methoxy-4H-1,3,2?5-benzodioxaphosphorine 2-sulfide.  Molecular Formula : C8H 9O3PS. Molecular weight is 216.2. Light yellow crystal. Melting point is 55-56C. Vapour pressure is 4.7x 10-3mmHg/25C. Solubility (in solution 1l) in Water is 58ppm / 30c, Acetone, Benzene, Ethanol, Ether : mix toluene, xylene, Cyclohexane are soluble.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: LD50of acute oral toxicity / weight (kg) : rat (male) 125mg, rat (female) 180mg, mouse(male) 91.3mg, mouse(female) 128mg . Percutaneous LD50 : rat (male) 400mg, rat (female) 590mg, mouse(male)(female) more than 1250mg. Intraperitoneal injection LD50 is rat (male) 81.6mg.  Fish toxicity 50% lethal concentration is carp 3.55ppm/48h, goldfish 2.8ppm/48h.  Fish toxicity rank of registered pesticides is B.


NAME: Dialifos
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, Insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name are S-(RS)-2-chloro-1-phthalimidoethyl O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate or N-[(RS)-2-chloro-1-(diethoxyphosphinothioylthio)ethyl]phthalimide. Molecular Formula is C14H17ClNO4PS2. Molecular Weight is 393.85. Flash point is 100 °C. Storing temperature is 0-6C.  Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. White crystals in pure state.  water 0.18 mg/kg essentially insoluble in vegetable oils, alcohol and glycols soluble in acetone, chloroform, xylene and ethyl ether.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May cause respiratory depression and respiratory paralysis.

In mammals, dialifos is an acutely toxic organophosphorus ester which would appear to be rapidly absorbed as shown by the rapid onset of cholinergic symptoms of poisoning. No data were available with respect to absorption, metabolism and excretion in animals. Teratogenic and reproduction studies indicated no adverse effects at doses below those that were toxic to the parents. Mutagenic activity was not observed in the microbial indicator organisms used in the study. No apparent signs of neurotoxicity were observed in hens given large doses of dialifos. In several short-and long-term studies in the mouse, rat, dog, hen, monkey, cattle and man, dialifos was shown to be an active cholinesterase inhibitor. Plasma cholinesterase was inhibited to agreater extent than either erythrocyte or brain cholinesterase with no marked difference between animal species.



NAME: Diamyl phthalate  
DESCRIPTION:  Molecular Formula is C18H26O4. Molecular Weight is 306.4.  Melting point is -55°C. Boling point is 342 °C. Density is 1.025 g/mL at 20 °C (lit.). Refractive index is n20/D 1.490. Flash point is greater than 110°C. Clear colorless viscous liquid. Clear colorless to light yellow liquid. Practically odorless. Floats on water. DI-N-AMYL PHTHALATE is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides. Can generate electrostatic charges.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Inhalation of vapors from very hot material may cause headache, drowsiness, and convulsions. Hot vapors may irritate eyes. Dioctyl phthalate is generally considered to be of low toxicity via the oral and dermal routes. Mucous membrane and eye irritation may occur. Central nervous system depression may occur. Dermal irritation is seldom seen. Skin sensitization does not occur in humans. The low vapor pressure usually precludes inhalation of any significant amount except perhaps as an aerosol adsorbed to airborne particulates. Acute Exposure/ Phthalate esters (PAE) exposure is associated with testicular damage that primarily affects Sertoli cells, and is concomitant with leukocyte infiltration into the testicular interstitium. ... The rat testis constitutively produces a lymphocyte activating factor (LAF) resembling interleukin-1 alpha, and originating from Sertoli cells. The testicular interleukin-1-like factor (tIL-1) has a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 17,000 (17 k) and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.7. ... The present study ... measured testicular LAF activity after exposure to di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP) in 40-day-old rats. ... A large increase in LAF bioactivity ... was evident already 3 hr after a single oral dose of DPP. The increase was maximal 9-12 hr after exposure, and had decreased toward the control level at 24 hr. The increased activity was found to be at least partly due to the induction of a novel LAF with Mr 38,000 and pI 4.5. Morphological examination confirmed earlier results with an interstitial leukocyte infiltration 6 hr after DPP exposure

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NAME: Diazinon
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Diazinon is the common name for a synthetic organophosphate pesticide first registered in the United States in 1956. Diazinon is used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematicide. Pure diazinon is a colorless oil. Vapor pressure1,3: 1.40 x 10-4, 8.4 x 10-5 mmHg at 20 °C. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient (Kow)1,3: 2.5 x 104; (log Kow)4: 3.3, 3.81. Henry’s constant may be determined by estimation or experimentally derived. Reported values include: 1.4 x 10-6 atm·m3/mol and 1.13 x 10-7 atm·m3/mol, depending on the technique used. Molecular weight1: 304.3 g/mol. Solubility (water)1,3,4,6: 0.04 g/L at 20 °C and 30 °C, however other values between 0.054 and 0.069 g/L have been reported in the 20-40 °C temperature range. Diazinon is completely miscible in acetone, benzene, ethanol, toluene, xylene and is soluble inpetroleum oils. Soil Sorption Coefficient (Koc)3,5: Reported values range from 40 to 854 L/kgoc Diazinon is a non-systemic insecticide used in agriculture to control soil and foliage insects and pests on a variety of fruit, vegetable, nut and field crops. Diazinon is also used on non-lactating cattle in an insecticidal ear tag. Prior to the cancellation of all residential uses by 2004, diazinon was used outdoors on lawns and gardens, indoors for fly control and in pet collars designed to control fleas and ticks.7 Uses for individual diazinon products vary widely. Always read and follow the label when applying pesticide products. Diazinon products are formulated as dusts, granules, liquids, concentrates, microencapsulations, wettable powders, seed dressings and impregnated materials
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Diazinon is a contact insecticide which kills by altering normal neurotransmission within the nervous system of target organisms. Diazinon inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in cholinergic synapses and neuromuscular junctions. This results in abnormal accumulation of ACh in the nervous system.Diazinon shares a common mechanism of toxicity with other organophosphate insecticides such as chlorpyrifos, malathion and parathion, thus, diazinon would not be effective against organophosphate-resistant insect populations.Diazinon is metabolized within organisms to form diazoxon (sometimes referred to as “activation,” see metabolism section below), and diazoxon is a more potent cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor compared to diazinon itself.

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NAME: Diazinon-oxon
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are Phosphoric acid, diethyl 6-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-4-pyrimidinyl ester;Phosphoric acid, diethyl 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl ester;Diazinon oxon;Oxodiazinon;Diethyl 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl phosphate; Diazinon O-analog Molecular Formula is C12H21N2O4P. Molecular Weight is 288.28.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity of diazinon oxon (DZO), a major in vivo metabolite of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon (DZ), on differentiating rat C6 glioma cells. At concentrations shown to be non-cytotoxic by both the MTT and the Kenacid blue dye binding assays (1, 5 and 10 microM), DZO caused after 24h a reduction in the number of extensions developed from C6 cells induced to differentiate by serum withdrawal and addition of sodium butyrate. Densitometric scanning of Western blots of extracts of C6 cells demonstrated that, at all concentrations used, DZO decreased after 24h the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) compared to controls. In addition, exposure to 10 microM DZO for 24h reduced the levels of tubulin and microtubule associated protein 1B (MAP1B). On the other hand, levels of MAP2c were not affected by DZO treatment. In contrast to our previous data on DZ, the above findings suggest that its oxon metabolite, DZO, may, at biologically relevant, subcytotoxic concentrations, interfere with glial cell differentiation.

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NAME: Dibenz[a,h]anthracene       
CLASSIFICATION: Occurs as a component of coal tars, shale oils, and soots.
DESCRIPTION: Dibenz[a,h]anthracene (CAS No. 53-70-3), also referred to as 1,2,5,6-dibenz (a,h) anthracene, 1,2:4,6-dibenz(a,h)anthracene, 1,2:5,6-dibenz(a,h)anthracene, DB( a,h)A, or DBA is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with five aromatic rings (ATSDR, 1993; Budavari et al., 1989). It has a molecular formula of C22H14, a molecular weight of 278.33, and a melting point of 266°C. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene exists as crystalline plates or leaflets and is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol and ether, and soluble in petroleum ether, benzene, toluene, xylene, oils and other organic solvents (Budavari et al., 1989). It has a vapor pressure of 1x10-10 mm Hg at 20°C and an estimated log octanol/water partition coefficient of 6.84 (Mabey et al., 1982). There is no commercial production or known use of dibenz[a,h]anthracene. It occurs as a component of coal tars, shale oils, and soots (IARC, 1985) and has been detected in gasoline engine exaust, coke oven emissions, cigarette smoke, charcoal broiled meats, vegetation near heavily travelled roads, surface water, and soils near hazardous waste sites
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In a study designed to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary adenomatosis in DBA/2 mice treated with dibenz[a,h]anthracene, Snell and Stewart (1962) observed that ad libitum ingestion of a water/olive oil emulsion containing 0.2 mg/mL dibenz[a,h]anthracene for 279 days (males) or 237 days (females) may have accelerated the development of calcareous pericarditis .This lesion is known to occur spontaneously in DBA/2 mice and to increase with age.
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides

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