DESCRIPTION: Toxaphene is a complex mixture of polychlorinated monoterpenes (primarily bornanes and camphenes) produced commercially from 1947 to 1982 and purported to contain600-plus separate congeners. Also known as Camphechlor, Strobane, Melipax, chlorocamphene, polychlorocamphene, and chlorinated camphene. Toxaphene consists of highly chlorinated bornanes and champhenes and was widely used as an insecticide. Technical toxaphene products consist of between 100 and 220 compounds.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In the Federal Republic of Germany, toxaphene was banned in 1980, but it was used in the former German Democratic Republic until 1990. Since 1982, the use of toxaphene has been prohibited in the European Union and the United States. In Central and South America, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia, toxaphene is still widely used , especially in cotton-producing countries of the developing world. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are ingested by humans in food and accumulate in adipose tissue. At the University Kinderklinik, Mannheim, previously unknown substances have been found in children (e.g., the pesticide toxaphene and chlorinated naphthalenes). These substances have been widely used for industrial purposes in the past. Samples from West and East Germany; Saratov, Russia; and Almaty, Kazakhstan were examined to determine whether these substances are ubiquitous. In specimens from all cities, toxaphene congeners Parlar 26 and Parlar 50 and six chlorinated naphthalenes were traced. Highest median load of toxaphene was 1.97 microg/kg for Parlar 26 and 2.36 microg/kg for Parlar 50 in Stralsund, East Germany. For chlorinated naphthalenes, the median was highest in Mannheim, West Germany, with 12.0 microg/kg.
NAME: Toxaphene Parlar 62
DESCRIPTION: Toxaphene is a chlorinated pesticide consisting of more than 200 congeners that are mainly chlorobornanes and chlorocamphenes. As the congeners exhibit different stability properties in the environment, only between 20 and 30 compounds can be observed in, e.g., fish, which are represented by technical toxaphene as a mixture. Commercial Toxaphene, known by a variety of trade names, is a technical mixture of several hundred chlorinated Camphenes. It is an extremely effective pesticide, and was used extensively when DDT was banned from use. However, because of the complexity of the technical mixture analysis has been difficult, and the dearth of pure, high-quality individual standards has hindered development of robust analytical methods. Until recently, no 13C-Toxaphene congeners were available, preventing analysts from enjoying the benefits of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS). After finding initial success replacing DDT in many agricultural applications, within a few years Toxaphene too was banned for most uses in much of the world. In 2001 Toxaphene, was included in the first round of chemical pollutants covered by the Stockholm Treaty; one of the "Dirty Dozen."
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In human body, the congeners Parlar #26, #40, #41, #44, #50, and #62 are detected frequently. Three of them, #26, #50, and #62, pose a potential risk to human health due to their persistent characteristic. By using experimental results of a European Union study (MATT, 2000. As with the analysis of other complex mixtures such as PCBs (Aroclors; Kanechlors) and BDEs (commercial PentaBDEs and OctaBDEs), most analysts have focused on methods that target key congeners.Ê In PCB analyses, most laboratories target the WHO ÒDioxin-LikeÓ PCBs and/or the Predominant or ÒMarkerÓ congeners. Since toxicity data is still being developed for BDEs, BDE analysis tends towards those Predominant congeners found in relatively high levels in the technical products.Ê While Toxaphene analysis is still waiting for a definitive method, researchers tend to focus on the most bioaccumulative congeners such as Parlar 26, 50, and 62.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chlorinated pesticides containing trans-chlordane were used for insect control in the United States between 1948 to 1988. It was mainly used for farm, lawn, and home pest control. Trans-chlordane is found in riverbeds, aquatic life, and mammalian life due to its release into the environment during its production, use and disposal. Trans-chlordane resides in soil for long periods of time and is still found in food supplies due to farmland treatment during the 1960s and 70s.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is a toxic pollutant that affects the nervous system, digestive system, and liver. It is
found in most humans in small amounts, and if taken in large amounts by mouth, can cause convulsions and death. The United Nations included it in the "dirty dozen Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) list.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Transfluthrin is a fast-acting pyrethroid insecticide with low persistency. It has the molecular formula C15H12Cl2F4O2. Transfluthrin can be used in the indoor environment against flies, mosquitoes andcockroaches. It is a relatively volatile substance and acts as a contact and inhalation agent. Transfluthrin is a fast acting insecticide. It is used in household and hygiene products, mainly against flying insects, such as mosquitoes and flies, but also against material pests, such as moths.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Transfluthrin is of low acute toxicity in the rat, with an LD50 of >5000 mg/kg bw via each route of administration and with an acute and dermal NOEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d. The 4 h LC50 was >513 mg/m3 air for male and female rats. The only sign noted during the 14 d observation period was a slight tremor in females for 5 minutes after dosing. Transfluthrin is not a skin or eye irritant, nor a skin sensitizer.
CLASSIFICATION: Synthetic polycyclic musk
DESCRIPTION: Traseolide is a synthetic polycyclic musk used as a fragrance ingredient in a variety of consumer products, including soaps, perfumes, and cosmetics (Daughton 1999). Exposure to Traseolide can take place through dermal absorption, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. Inhalation of this chemical typically occurs through use of aerosolized consumer products, such as perfumes or air fresheners, that contain Traseolide; dermal exposure typically occurs through use of personal care products, such as lotion and cosmetics, that are applied to the skin
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Very little is known about potential, long-term toxic effects of human exposure to Traseolide. A recent study using aquatic organisms showed that exposure to Traseolide can cause long-term inhibition of specific transporters in cell walls that are responsible for keeping toxic molecules from entering the cell (Luckenbach 2005). This inhibition could result in accumulation of toxic substances within cells. These same cell wall transporters are found in human tissue as well; further studies should be conducted to investigate any implications of these findings for human health.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triallate belongs to the thiocarbamate chemical class. It is a pre-emergence selective herbicide used to control grass weeds in field and pulse crops . It is used selectively to control wild oats, black grass, and annual meadow grass in barley, wheat, peas, lentils, rye, maize, beets, brassicas, carrots and onions . Depending on the crop that is treated, the herbicide is incorporated in the soil before or after planting . Triallate is available as emulsifiable concentrates and as granular formulations.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Technical Triallate is slightly toxic by ingestion to humans. It is practically nontoxic via dermal exposure or inhalation . In rats fed Triallate at doses of 50 to 2,000 mg/kg, abnormal behavior was observed at doses of 100 mg/kg and above. No changes in nerve tissue occurred. At doses of 600 mg/kg and above, death and reduced body weight occurred . Sheep may be poisoned by 300 mg/kg of Triallate, with symptoms of depression, lack of appetite, mouth watering, weakness, and convulsions . Inhalation exposure to large amounts of thiocarbamates may cause itching, scratching.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triadimefon is also known as Bayleton. It is a systemic fungicide in the triazole family of chemicals. Triadimefon is used to control powdery mildews, rusts and other fungal pests on cereals, fruits vegetables, turf, shrubs and trees.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Triadimefon is a moderately toxic compound that carries the signal word WARNING on its label. While there is a rather extensive amount of information on the acute toxicity of the compound to certain animals, there is very little information about its direct effects on humans. The technical compound Bayleton (92.6% triadimefon) has an acute oral LD50 in rats of 569 mg/kg, around 1,000 mg/kg in mice, and about 500 mg/kg in rabbits and dogs .These rather consistent values are slightly higher than normal for the classification moderately toxic. The compound is given the stronger classification because of its potential to cause adverse chronic effects at low to moderate dose levels. As expected, the lower potency formulations of Bayleton have lower toxicities (higher LD50 values). Acute inhalation toxicity of the compound is rather low. The inhalation LC50 is greater than 291 mg/m3 for rats and near that amount for mice exposed over a four-hour interval. Acute toxicity through exposure to the skin is also fairly low. The LD50 values for the dermal toxicity of Bayleton (technical) are greater than 1,000 mg/kg for rats and 2,000 mg/kg for rabbits.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triadimenol is the primary metabolite of triadimefon and is registered separately under its own active ingredient number. Triadimefon is used to control various fungal diseases in fruit (pineapple) and non-food use sites such as: pine seedlings, Christmas trees, residential (sod farm) and commercial turf, ornamentals, and landscape.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The endpoint of concern for triadimenol is neurotoxicity, which was observed in rat, mice, and rabbit studies. Since no appropriate acute endpoint could be determined from the triadimenol database, the triadimefon subchronic neurotoxicity study in rats was chosen for the acute reference dose (aRfD) for triadimenol, as well.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticides (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Triamiphos is an organic phosphorus insecticide. Organic phosphorus insecticides are absorbed by the skin, as well as by the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Organophosphates, such as TRIAMIPHOS, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides.
CLASSIFICATION: Plant Growth Regulator
DESCRIPTION: Triapenthenol is the proposed common name for a new plant growth regulator (E)-l-cyclohexyl-4, 4-dimethyl-2-(1, 2, 4-triazol-l-yl)-l-penten-3-01. Its main influence upon plants is an inhibition of shoot growth. Root growth is not inhibited at normal dosages. Growth inhibition in dicotyledons is achieved by either foliar or root uptake, while in monocotyledons, root uptake is necessary and foliar treatment fails to produce growth inhibition. Mainly acropetal transport of the compound is assumed to be responsible for this behaviour. Apart from growth inhibition, a marked influence upon water relations in plants was observed. In barley, water consumption was reduced for whole plants. Calculations also revealed a reduction of transpiration per unit leaf area. In rape only an initial reduction of water consumption was observed. The fresh weight/dry weight ratio of plants was increased by the compound. The total nitrogen content per plant was unchanged but increased when calculated on a dry weight basis. The compound exerted retardant effects by interfering with gibberellin biosynthesis, but the shape of the dose-response curves with increasing gibberellin concentrations in the presence and in the absence of Triapenthenol suggests that this may not be the only effect of the compound on the plant metabolism.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The hazard referred to in this Recommendation is the acute risk to health (that is, the risk of single or multiple exposures over a relatively short period of time) that might be encountered accidentally by any person handling the product in accordance with the directions for handling by the manufacturer or in accordance with the rules laid down for storage and transportation by competent international bodies.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: An insecticide used to control aphids on a wide variety of crops. Triazamate is a plant-systemic aphicide which moves both acropetally and basipetally. It acts primarily as a stomach poison and also has contact activity. The product has a rapid knockdown effect. Reductions in the number of aphids can be seen within one hour of application, with complete control within 24 hours. It also has residual activity lasting 2-3 weeks depending on species. Triazamate is specific to aphids. It is safe to beneficial insects and mites. The company notes that the use of adjuvants improves rainfastness and allows lower application rates to be used. In field trials, triazamate gave similar or better results than standard insecticides at lower application rates. It is effective on strains of Myzus persicae (peach-potato aphid), Aphis gossypii (cotton aphid) and Phorodon humuli (damson-hop aphid) resistant to certain other insecticides. Molecular weight:314.4; Physical form:White to light tan, crystalline solid, with a slight sulfur odour ( tech.). Density:1.222 (20.5 ¡C); Melting point:54 ¡C; Flash point:189 ¡C (EEC A9); Vapour pressure:0.16 mPa (25 ¡C); Henry constant:1.26 ? 10-4 Pa m3 mol-1 (25 ¡C, calc.); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 2.15 ( pH 7, 25 ¡C); pKa:Non-ionising pH 4-9; Solubility: In water 399 ppm ( pH 7, 25 ¡C). Soluble in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate (tech
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It has shown acute oral toxicity to male rat LD50 is 2198mg/kg, to female rat is 2355mg/kg, slight acute toxicity to rat. For many animal studies, a dose response relationship can be determined, which provides a dose that causes adverse effects (threshold effects) and doses causing no observed effects (the ``no-observed effect level'' or ``NOEL''). Moderately toxic if swallowed or inhaled. Oral: Acute oral LD50 for male rats 100-200, female rats 50-100, mice 54 mg tech./kg. Percutaneous: Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >5000 mg/kg. Practically non-irritating to the skin; moderate eye irritant (rabbits). Not a skin sensitizer (guinea pigs). Inhalation: LC50 for rats 0.47 mg/l air. ADI:0.012 mg/kg b.w.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide, nematicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triazophos is a synthetic chemical used as an insecticide. Triazophos can be toxic to wildlife. Triazophos is one of a class of chemically similar substances called organophosphorus pesticides. They are chemically similar to compounds developed as 'nerve gas' developed for use as chemical weapons before and during the Second World War, and have a similar mode of action. Triazophos is broken down in the environment and does not bioaccumulate, unlike certain organochlorine insecticides, for example. Effects of releases are therefore considered to be confined to the locality of the release and significant transport in environmental media over long distances is considered to be insignificant.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Excessive exposure to triazophos may affect the brain and peripheral nerve. The Environment Agency aims to ensure that environmental exposures are too low to harm human health. In a survey in the UK 81 samples of carrots were taken in 1991 and 1992 from crops with a known history of treatment with triazophos in accordance with label recommandations. The application rates were 0.53 or 1.05 kg ai/ha, the number of treatments from 1 to 3 and the PHI from 78 to 250 days, mostly between 100 and 200 days. Residues ranged from <0.02 to 0.94 mg/kg with a mean of 0.17 mg/kg, and the 90th percentile was approximately 0.4 mg/kg. Triazophos was evaluated in 1982 and several times since then, most recently in 1991. Maximum residue levels were estimated for a number of commodities and recommended as TMRLs because the ADI was temporary. At the 23rd and 24th Sessions of the CCPR (1991-92) the proposed TMRLs for citrus fruits, bananas,Brussels sprouts, head cabbages, common beans and cauliflower were held at step 7b and referred back to the JMPR. Written comments were received from France, Germany and The Netherlands on citrus fruits, bananas, Brussels sprouts and head cabbages. The manufacturer submitted new residue data from supervised trials on carrots, strawberries and soya beans.
NAME: Tributyl phosphate
CLASSIFICATION: Hydraulic fluid
DESCRIPTION: Tributyl phosphate, known commonly as TBP, is an organophosphorus compound with the formula(CH3CH2CH2CH2O)3PO. This colourless, odorless liquid finds some applications as an extractant and a plasticizer. It is an ester of orthophosphoric acid with n-butanol. TBP is a solvent and plasticizer for cellulose esters such as nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate. It forms stable hydrophobic complexes with some metals; these complexes are soluble in organic solvents as well as supercritical CO2. The major uses of TBP in industry are as a component of aircraft hydraulic fluid and as a solvent for extraction and purification of rare earth metals from their ores.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) produces tumors of the bladder urothelium in rats at high doses (700 and 3000 ppm), with greater effects in males than in females. TBP does not produce tumors in mice and it is nongenotoxic. The dose response of TBP effects on urine and urothelium was evaluated in male SpragueÐDawley rats at 0, 200, 700, and 3000 ppm of the diet, 10 rats per group, for 10 weeks.
NAME: Tributyl phosphorotrithioite
CLASSIFICATION: Cotton Defoliant
DESCRIPTION: S,S,S-Tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) is an organophosphate chemical which was first registered in 1960 for cotton defoliation (U.S. EPA, 1981).
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DEF appears to be readily absorbed by the oral route and rapidly metabolized in the species examined. Several metabolic pathways have been proposed for DEF based on a few metabolites; however, the metabolism of DEF by the various routes of exposure is still highly speculative. One explanation for the inability to identify metabolites was that most of the parent compound had been extensively metabolized into natural constituents, such as fatty acids and proteins. n-Butyl mercaptan (nBM) was identified in the excreta of hens administered DEF orally. It was proposed that DEF was hydrolyzed to nBM in the gut. nBM is thought to be a product of the normal metabolism of DEF in tissues. DEF also readily degrades to nBM in the environment and may be responsible for complaints by residents in communities near cotton fields due to its strong skunk-like odor (odor threshold ~ 0.01 to 1 ppb). However, limited data on nBM preclude a thorough toxicological evaluation. The potential for tribufos to produce a dermal sensitization response was tested in guinea pigs using the Buehler Topical Closed-Patch Technique (Miles, 1990). A total of 35 adult male Hartley albino guinea pigs were assigned to one of five groups: tribufos test group (15 animals), tribufos non-induced control group (five animals, for challenge), tribufos non-induced control group (five animals, for re-challenge), DNCB (positive control) test group (five animals) and DNCB non-induced control group (five animals). The tribufos was administered as a 10% solution for the three induction doses and the challenge dose and as a 1% solution for the re-challenge dose. Animals in the test groups received three topical induction applications of the appropriate formulation on study days 0, 7 and 14, followed by a 13-day "rest" period and a challenge application on day 27. Animals in the two non-induced control groups (tribufos challenge and DNCB) received only the challenge dose on day 27. A re-challenge dose of tribufos was applied on day 34 (test and non-induced control groups) in order to verify that the erythema present in the test group after the challenge dose was due to local irritation rather than to a sensitization reaction. The results of this study indicate that tribufos does not cause a dermal sensitization reaction in guinea pigs using the Buehler Topical Closed-Patch Technique.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Trichlamide is a fungicide which prevents infection of crops with soil pathogens through contact effect. It is used in soil treatment application. The product is used as a reference standard in the measurement of trichlamide.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Hepatotoxicity of trichlamide was considered to be associated with its direct adverse effects on mitochondrial energy production, since it uncoupled isolated mitochondrial respiration at 10Ð6 M and depleted cellular ATP content prior to cell death. Conversely, chlorothalonil- and ziram-induced hepatotoxicity seemed to be related to their depleting effects on cellular sulfhydryls, since addition of the thiol compound dithiothreitol to the hepatocytes incubation mixture protected cells. With respect to isolated mitochondrial respiration, four pesticides inhibited state 3 and/or state 4 respiration rates at 10Ð3Ð10Ð4 M, whereas seven pesticides uncoupled state 4 respiration at 10Ð3Ð10Ð6 M. With respect to isolated microsomal lipid peroxidation, three pesticides were peroxidative at 10Ð3Ð10Ð4 M, whereas three pesticides were antioxidative at 10Ð3Ð10Ð7 M. Only two pesticides, -endosulfan and metalaxyl, had essentially no effects on any parameters tested at 10Ð3 M.
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide used to control cockroaches, crickets, silverfish, bedbugs, fleas, cattle grubs, flies, ticks, leafminers, and leaf-hoppers. It is applied to vegetable, fruit, and field crops; livestock; ornamental and forestry plantings; in agricultural premises and domestic settings; in greenhouses, and for control of parasites of fish in designated aquatic environments. It is also used for treating domestic animals for control of internal parasites. Trichlorfon is available in dust, emulsifiable concentrate, granular, fly bait, and soluble powder formulations with percent active ingredient ranging from 40% (soluble powder) to 98% (technical). Trichlorfon is a selective insecticide, meaning that it kills selected insects, but spares many or most other organisms. Trichlorfon is toxic to target insects through direct applications and via ingestion.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Trichlorfon is moderately toxic by ingestion or dermal absorption. As with all organophosphates, trichlorfon is readily absorbed through the skin. Skin sensitivity (allergies) can result from dermal exposure . Trichlorfon decreases activity of the cholinesterase enzyme which is necessary for normal nervous system function. Symptoms of acute exposure include headache, giddiness, nervousness, blurred vision, weakness, nausea, cramps, loss of muscle control or reflexes, convulsion, or coma . It has been suggested that impurities or additives may be associated with some cases of delayed polyneuropathy (damage to nerve cells) attributed to ingestion of large amounts of trichlorfon . These delayed symptoms may occur following recovery from the initial acute effects. Pure trichlorfon is reported to be less toxic than the technical material [2,8]. The oral LD50 for trichlorfon is 450 to 650 mg/kg in rats and 300 to 860 mg/kg in mice . Other reported oral LD50 values are 94 mg/kg in cats, 400 mg/kg in dogs, 420 mg/kg in dogs, and 160 mg/kg in rabbits . The dermal LD50 is 2000 to 5000 mg/kg in rats [2,8], and 1500 to greater than 2100 mg/kg in rabbits [2,41]. The 4-hour inhalation LC50 for trichlorfon in rats is greater than 0.5 mg/L .