Pesticides (Tr – Z)

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NAME: Trichloronat

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms: Phosphonothioic acid, ethyl-, O-ethyl O-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) ester;Agritox;Bayer S 4400;Bayer 37289;Bayer 5081;BAY 37289;Chemagro 37289;ENT-25712;Fitosol;O-Ethyl O-2,4,5-Trichlorophenyl ethylphosphonothioate;Phytosol;Richloronate;S 4400;Trichloronate;5082A;O-Aethyl-O-(2,4,5-trichlorphenyl)-aethylthionophosphonat; Agrisil;ENT 25,712;Ethyl trichlorophenylethylphosphonothioate; Fenophosphon;OMS 412;OMS 578;Phenol, 2,4,5-trichloro-, O-ester with O-e. When trichloronat or fensulfothion was applied to the soil surface, the toxicity of both compounds to first stage root maggot larvae increased during the first few days, then decreased at a constant and relatively rapid rate. When Trichloronat was mixed with the top 1?in. of soil, its toxicity or that of its metabolites increased for about 3 months, then gradually decreased. When it was applied in a band below the surface, its persistence increased with the depth of application. When fensulfothion was applied in the same manner, its toxicity was not greatly influenced by the method of application; this decreased during the first 4 or 5 days, rose to a peak in 15 to 30 days, then gradually decreased. Fensulfothion was highly systemic in rutabagas. Its toxicants were most bioactive 60 to 80 days after application and decreased gradually thereafter. Trichloronat toxicants were slowly absorbed by the roots but toxic residues did not degrade in storage.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Its toxic effects are due to action on the nervous system. It has high oral toxicity and death can occur in acute poisonings. Delayed neurotoxicity has been reported.  Eight yearling cattle were accidentally poisoned with the agricultural organophosphate insecticide Trichloronat. One animal showed signs of acute organophosphate poisoning and died. The others showed signs of chronic organophosphate poisoning (organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy) after 2-3 weeks and one animal died from renal failure at 12 weeks. High levels of Trichloronat were measured in fat samples at 6 1/2 weeks. The remaining animals still showed signs of ataxia, possibly due to distal axonopathy, 1 year later but no Trichloronat was detected in fat samples at this time.

NAME: Triclopyr methyl ester          

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triclopyr is a pyridine-based herbicide used for the control of woody plants and annual and perennial broadleaf weeds. Triclopyr is absorbed by leaves and roots and is moved throughout the plant. Lab experiments indicate that foliar uptake is fast with 90% of applied TBEE penetrating vegetation in about 12 hours (McCall and Gavit et al., 1986). Triclopyr can damage plants due to root uptake but does not work effectively that way (Newton et al., 1990). Triclopyr acts as a synthetic auxin, giving a plant an auxin overdose 1000 times natural levels, which disrupts the hormonal balance and interferes with growth. The effects occur at the cellular level first, then exterior effects are seen. Ethylene and protein production in the plant increases first then after about one week, epinasty, abnormal leaf formation and stem swelling occur.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Triclopyr, however, can cause injury to conifers at high application rates (Ghassemi et al., 1981). According to the label for Garlon ¨ 4, when applications are made as suggested for California, sprays may cause discolored needles and temporary growth suppression of some conifers. Since Triclopyr is rapidly degraded by soil microorganisms, there is not enough residue left to injure plants the next growing season.

NAME: Triclosan 

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triclosan is an antibacterial and antifungal agent. It is a polychloro phenoxy phenol. Despite being used in many consumer products, beyond its use in toothpaste to prevent gingivitis, there is no evidence according to the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that triclosan provides an extra benefit to health in other consumer products. Triclosan safety is currently under review by the FDA.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Triclosan is used in a variety of common household products, including soaps, mouthwashes, dish detergents, toothpastes, deodorants, and hand sanitizers. In the United States, manufacturers of products containing Triclosan must indicate it on the label.
NAME: Triclosan-methyl                
CLASSIFICATION:  Pesticide (fungicide, bacteriostat)
DESCRIPTION: Triclosan is regulated by both the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The EPA regulates the antimicrobial uses of triclosan when used as a bacteriostat, fungistat, mildewstat, and deodorizer. EPA-registered products containing triclosan as the active ingredient are formulated as ready-to-use, pelleted/tableted, emulsifiable concentrate, soluble concentrate, and impregnated materials. Triclosan is used in commercial, institutional and industrial premises and equipment; residential and public access premises; and as a material preservative. Commercial, institutional and industrial premises and equipment uses include conveyor belts, fire hoses, dye bath vats and ice making equipment. As a material preservative, triclosan is used in many products including adhesives, fabrics, vinyl, plastics (toys, toothbrushes), polyethylene, polyurethane, polypropylene, floor wax emulsions, textiles (footwear, clothing), caulking compounds, sealants, rubber, and latex paints. There are a multitude of residential and public access premises uses including direction application to HVAC coils (limited to commercial applicators), and use as a materials preservative in toys, paints, mattresses, clothing, brooms, mulch, floors, shower curtains, awnings, tents, toilet bowls, urinals, garbage cans, refuse container liners, insulation, concrete mixtures, grouts, and upholstery fabrics. The FDA-regulated uses include hand soaps, toothpaste, deodorants, laundry detergent, fabric softeners, facial tissues, antiseptics for wound care, and medical devices.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Triclosan has low acute toxicity via the oral and dermal routes (Category IV) and moderate acute toxicity via the inhalation route (Category II). It is moderately irritating to the eye (Category II), is a moderate to mild dermal irritant (Category III), and not a skin sensitizer. 2008. The estimated risk from exposure to triclosan in residential settings does not exceed the AgencyÕs level of concern for inhalation during the paint brush application (MOE= 4,000; target MOE = 1000). However, the estimated risk from exposure to triclosan in residential settings is of concern during the airless sprayer application (MOE= 180; target MOE = 1000). Personal protective equipment (PPE) such as respirators is not a viable mitigation option for residential paint uses for an in-can preservative. Mitigating with PPE is only a viable option for pesticide-labeled products (i.e., a label is needed to inform workers to wear PPE). Therefore, the Agency can direct workers using pesticide-labeled products (concentrated form) at the manufacturing setting to wear PPE to mitigate dermal irritation. Conversely, for in-can material preservatives there is no pesticide label that goes with the preserved product to inform the workers/painters that PPE is needed (i.e., there is no pesticide label on a can of paint).
NAME: Tricresylphosphate, meta-      
CLASSIFICATION: Plastisticizer
DESCRIPTION: Tricresyl phosphate, abbreviated TCP, is an organophosphate compound that is used as a plasticizer and diverse other applications. It is a colourless, viscous liquid, although commercial samples are typically yellow. It is virtually insoluble in water.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TCP is the cause of numerous poisonings and is a neurotoxin, in part via organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy. and is of Òtoxicological importanceÓ and has been responsible for many deaths. The most serious incident arose in the 1920s when TCP was used as anadulterant for Jamaican ginger. TCP's mechanism of action is similar to other organophosphates in that it can inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, leading to a buildup of acetylcholine in the synaptic space. This can lead to hyperactivity in cholinergic neurons in the brain and at neuromuscular junctions in the peripheral nervous system resulting in apoptosis of those cell-types. This is the reason for paralysis and other irr
NAME: Tricresylphosphate, ortho-    
DESCRIPTION: Tricresyl phosphate, abbreviated TCP, is an organophosphate compound that is used as a plasticizer and diverse other applications. It is a colourless, viscous liquid, although commercial samples are typically yellow. It is virtually insoluble in water.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TCP is the cause of numerous poisonings and is a neurotoxin, in part via organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy. And is of Òtoxicological importanceÓ and has been responsible for many deaths. The most serious incident arose in the 1920s when TCP was used as anadulterant for Jamaican ginger. TCP's mechanism of action is similar to other organophosphates in that it can inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, leading to a buildup ofacetylcholine in the synaptic space. This can lead to hyperactivity in cholinergic neurons in the brain and at neuromuscular junctions in the peripheral nervous system resulting in apoptosis of those cell-types. This is the reason for paralysis and other irreversible neurological problems seen in the "Gingerjake" syndromes during prohibition, when TCP was added to gingerjake moonshine.
 NAME: Tricyclazole
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide, bactericide)
DESCRIPTION: Tricyclazole is highly systemic protective triazole bactericides, and can be quickly absorbed by root, stem and leaves of rice. It is mainly used for the control of rice leaf blast and rice panicle blast. It is a systemic fungicide used for controlling blast disease of rice and preventing rice spike and leaf paste
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tricyclazole is a new fungicide having high effect, low toxicity, low residue and is effective to control rust, powdery mildew and anthracnose on beans.  Acute toxicity: Moderately Hazardous. Acute oral: Tech (mouse):LD50 250 mg/kg; (rat): LD50 314 mg/kg. Acute dermal: Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >2000 mg/kg. Inhalation toxicity: LC50 for rats is 0.146 mg/l diet Eye irritation: severe irritant to eye Sensisation: non-sensisative Sharp toxicity: not applicable There were no indications of Tricyclazole having mutagenic effects, primary embryo-toxic effects, teratogenic effects or adverse effects on reproductive performance.
NAME: Tridemorph , 4-tridecyl-        
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Tridemorph is a systemic fungicide that first gained commercial clearance in 1969. An evaluation document to be published later in the year by the UK's Pesticide Safety Directorate (PSD) will report concern over its potential reproductive effects on spray operators. Until recently there has been very little human health and environmental information in the public domain on this active ingredient, yet it is used widely over numerous crops in many countries around the world. t is used to control the fungus Erysiphe graminis in cereals, Mycosphaerella species in bananas, and Caticum solmonicolor in tea. Tridemorph is formulated with the fungicide carbendazim, to extend its spectrum of use in cereal disease control. It is also used with a number of other fungicides including: cyproconazole, fenbuconazole, fenpropi-morph, flusilazole, propiconazole, tebucon-azole, triadimeno.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: EPA has determined that risk from exposure to Tridemorph is within its own "risk cup." In other words, EPA is able to conclude today that the tolerance for Tridemorph meets the FQPA safety standards. Although the toxicological database had some deficiencies, the database as a whole is adequate for tolerance reassessment. In reaching this determination, the Agency has considered the available information on the potential sensitivity of infants and children, as well as acute and chronic food exposure. Because there are no existing registrations for the use of Tridemorph in the U.S., only acute and chronic dietary (food) assessments were conducted for potential exposure to Tridemorph per se residues in/on imported bananas/plantains. Results of both dietary assessments indicate that the human health risks from these exposures are considered within acceptable levels; that is, all assessed risks from exposure to Tridemorph "fit" within the individual risk cup for this chemical.
 NAME: Tridiphane
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticides (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Chloro-dichloronio-ethylalumanuide ; diethylalumanide (58138-08-2 )
Synonyms:ÊTridiphane ; (.+/-.)-2-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-2-(2,2,2-trichloroethyl)Oxirane ; (Rs)-2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2,2,2-trichloroethyl)Oxirane ; 2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2,2,2-trichloroethyl)-Oxiran ; 2-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-2-(2,2,2-trichloroethyl)oxirane ; Dowco 356;dowco356 ; Nelpon CAS: 58138-08-2 Molecular Formula ofÊÊTridiphane (58138-08-2 ) : C10H7Cl5O Molecular Weight Tridiphane (58138-08-2 ) : 320.43
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Rats (30/sex/group) were fed Tridiphane at dose levels of 0, l, 5, or 30 mg/kg/day. Females were maintained on these diets throughout the study for the production of Fla and Flb litters, and F2a and F2b litters. However, starting with the F1b litters Tridiphane concentrations in the diet were adjusted downward so that lactating dams were receiving l/2 of the original concentration between days 7-l4 of lactation, and l/3 of the original concentration between days l4-28 of lactation. On day 28, the diets were readjusted to the prelactation concentrations. Results of this study indicated that Tridiphane decreases the fertility index at the 5 and 30 mg/kg/day dose levels. Thus, the NOEL for reproductive effects was l mg/kg/day. However, since the dose levels were adjusted downward by 67%, the U.S. EPA established the NOEL as 0.33 mg/kg/day and the LEL as l.67 mg/kg/day. 
 NAME: Triethylphosphate               
CLASSIFICATION: Flame retardant
DESCRIPTION: It is a colorless liquid. It is the triester of ethanol and phosphoric acid and can be called "phosphoric acid, triethyl ester". Its primary uses are as an industrial catalyst, a polymer resin modifier, and a plasticizer (e.g. for unsaturated polyesters). In smaller scale it is used as a solvent for e.g. cellulose acetate, flame retardant, an intermediate for pesticides and other chemicals, stabilizer for peroxides, a strength agent for rubber and plastic including vinyl polymers and unsaturated polyesters, etc. Triethyl phosphate is also a common intermediate in the manufacture of pesticides.
HEALTH PROBLEM: Trimethyl Phosphate is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as sex, level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome. Effects on the male reproductive system can include such things as altered sexual behavior, altered fertility and problems with sperm shape or count.
 NAME: Trifenmorph                    
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (molluscicide)
DESCRIPTION: Trifenmorph (N-tritylmorpholine) 4 has been found to be a promising molluscicide for controlling snails. It can be applied by means of a prolonged low-dosage technique to irrigation systems, canals, and waterways at levels of up to0.1 ppm or by a single application to static water at a higher dosage level.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Although the toxicity of trifenmorph for mammals is low (Brown et al., 1967), it is desirable that the fate of the residues should be studied when the treated water is used to irrigate growing crops. In previous studies (Beynon et al., 1967), it was shown that trifenmorph was relatively stable in water of pHgreater than eight, but that it hydrolysed rapidly to form triphenylmethanol in water below pH 7.
 NAME: Trifloxystrobin               
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Trifloxystrobin works by interfering with respiration in plant pathogenic fungi. The site of action of strobilurin compounds islocated in the mitochondrial respiration pathway. As a result of this mode of action, trifloxystrobin is a potent inhibitor of2fungal spore germination and mycelial growth. Trifloxystrobin is a broad-spectrum foliar fungicide that has high levels ofactivity against many fungal pathogens within the Ascomycete, Deuteromycete, Basidiomycete, and Oomycete classes.  Pestscontrolled by this active ingredient include grape and cucurbit powdery mildew, apple scab and powdery mildew, peanut leafspot,and brown patch of turf grasses.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Trifloxystrobin has been classified as a "not likely human carcinogen". Subchronic and chronic toxicity studies demonstratedthat the primary effects of trifloxystrobin occur in the liver and kidneys, at high doses.   Prenatal developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits provided no indication of i
 NAME: Triflumizole
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Triflumizole (E-4-Chloro-alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-N-(1-imidazol-1-yl-2-propoxyethylidene)-o-toluidine) is a novel systemic fungicide discovered and developed by Nippon Soda Co., Ltd. The manufacturing use product (MP) is for use only in the formulation of fungicides.  The end-use product is for use in control of Cylindrocladium root and petiole rot on Spathiphyllum. The end-use product is a protectant fungicide to be used as a soil drench, foliar spray or through chemigation for control of diseases on ornamentals grown in enclosed commercial structures such as greenhouses, shade houses and interior scapes.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Fish: Highly to Very Highy Toxic. Molluscs: Very Highly Toxic. Zooplankton: Very Highly Toxic. A 2-year feeding/oncogenicity study with Sprague-Dawley rats was conducted.  Rats were fed 0, 5, 20 or 80 mg/kg/day doses of triflumizole equivalent to 0, 100, 400 and 1600 ppm triflumizole for 104 weeks with an interim sacrifice at 52 weeks.  Numerous organ weights, clinical chemistry and hematology parameters and microscopic changes indicate the main target organ is the liver, with fatty vacuolization and periacinar hepatic hypertrophy seen at all dose levels tested.  Ovarian organ weights as well as well-developed follicles indicate the ovary as a target.  Kidney weights were affected as well with increased cortical cysts seen in the kidneys of mid and high dose animals.    The NOEL is greater than 100 ppm, based on fatty vacuolization and periacinar hepatic hypertrophy seen at all dose levels tested.  An increase in tumor incidence was not noted in any treatment groups.
 NAME: Trifluralin
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Trifluralin is a selective, pre-emergence dinitroaniline herbicide used to control many annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in a large variety of tree fruit, nut, vegetable, and grain crops. Preemergence herbicides are applied before weed seedlings sprout. Trifluralin should be incorporated into the soil by mechanical means within 24 hours of application. Granular formulations may be incorporated by overhead irrigation. Trifluralin is available in granular and emulsifiable concentrate formulations.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Trifluralin is not acutely toxic to test animals by oral, dermal or inhalation routes of exposure. Pesticide products containing trifluralin may be moderately toxic to relatively non-toxic, depending on the type of formulation. Nausea and severe gastrointestinal discomfort may occur after eating trifluralin.Trifluralin does not cause skin irritation. When applied to the eyes of rabbits, trifluralin produced slight irritation which cleared within 7 days. Skin sensitization (allergies) may occur in some individuals. Inhalation may cause irritation of the lining of the mouth, throat or lungs. The solvent in emulsifiable concentrates of trifluralin may cause irritation to the skin. Most cases of poisoning result from the carrier or solvent in formulated trifluralin products, rather than from the trifluralin itself (NRC Drinking Water and Health. 1977).
 NAME: Triphenyl phosphate            
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide 9insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Triphenyl phosphate is the chemical compound with the formula OP(OC6H5)3. This colourless solid is the ester (triester) of phosphoric acid and phenol. It is used as a plasticizer and a fire retardant. Triphenylphosphate is prepared by the reaction of phosphorus oxychloride and phenol: POCl3 + 3 HOC6H5 ? OP(OC6H5)3 + 3 HCl
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant, permeator), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. The effects of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) and butylated triphenyl phosphate (BTP)-based hydraulic fluid on reproduction were studied in F344 rats using a modification of the National Toxicology Program's Continuous Breeding Protocol. TCP-dosed female rats had increased ovarian weights, while BTP-dosed females had significantly lower uterine weights. The results of this study indicate that BTP and TCP are reproductive toxicants in F344 rats.
 NAME: Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate   
CLASSIFICATION: Flame retardant
DESCRIPTION: Its synonyms are tributoxyethyl phosphate, tri(butoxyethyl)phosphate, 2-butoxyethanol phosphate, TBEP, KP-140, phosphoric acid tris(butoxyethyl)ester, tri(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, tributyl. Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) is used in floor polishes and as a plasticizer in rubber and plastics. The worldwide production volume is not available but is estimated to be in the range of 5000Ð6000 tonnes. TBEP occurs in the environment only as a result of human activity. Its distribution in the environment has been investigated in certain industrialized countries. Concentrations in surface water were found to be below 300 ng/litre, whereas concentrations in sediment were between 100 and 1000 :g/kg. None of 167 analyses detected TBEP in fish. It has been detected in outdoor air in a single study (<200 ng/m3). Measurement of TBEP in indoor air in offices showed concentrations of 25 ng/m3 or less. TBEP is associated with particulates and the source is considered to be the application of floor polish. It has been detected at :g/kg levels in human adipose tissue. The reported daily dietary intake from market basket studies, for a range of age groups, was <0.02 :g/kg body weight per day. Drinking water concentrations of up to 270 :g/litre have been reported, this is considered to arise from migration from rubber gaskets in the plumbing.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRCP), a flame-retardant plasticizer used in plastics, polymeric foams and synthetic fibers, was studied as part of the National Toxicology Program's class study of phosphate flame-retardants. TRCP was administered at 0, 22, 44, 88, 175 and 350 mg/kg to both sexes of rats and 0, 44, 88, 175, 350 and 700 mg/kg to both sexes of mice in both fourteen day repeat dose and sixteen week subchronic studies. Results of these studies showed that TRCP toxicity in the 14-day studies was limited to modest increases in male rat kidney and female rat liver weights. Little evidence of toxicity was observed in mice in the 14 day studies. Toxicity observed in mice in the sixteen-week studies was limited to increased liver weights in both sexes and decreased kidney weights in males.

NAME: Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate  
CLASSIFICATION: Flame retardant
DESCRIPTION: Tris (2-chloroethyl)phosphate, or TCEP, is a chemical additive that gives flame retardant properties to certain types of plastic, including polyurethane foam and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). TCEP has many applications in consumer products, including furniture foam, carpeting, upholstery, and the cases of electronic devices such as televisions and computers.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Results of the studies showed that TRCP toxicity in the 14-day studies was limited to modest increases in male rat kidney and female rat liver weights. Little evidence of toxicity was observed in mice in the 14-day studies. Toxicity observed in mice in the sixteen week studies was limited to increased liver weights in both sexes and decreased kidney weights in males. Administration of TRCP to rats for sixteen weeks resulted in increased mortality of males and females, increased liver and kidney weights and a lesion in the hippocampal region of the brain. The lesion observed in rat brain appeared as loss of the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus and was both more common and more severe in female rats. This lesion, which was not observed in mice, is unusual for any chemical and is unique for a trialkyl phosphate such as TRCP. It is speculated that this highly directed toxicity of TRCP might be used as a chemical probe to investigate the role of the hippocampus in behavior and other functions.
NAME: Tris(2-ethylhexyl) posphate     
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: They are Phosphoric acid alkyl esters which are used as alkylation agent for nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and as catalysts to produce phenolic and urea resins. They are used flame retarding plasticizers for cellulose esters, lacquers, plastic and vinyl resins as well as dispersing agents in plastisols. They are used as solvents in liquid-liquid extractant or separation agent of metals. They are is used as heat exchange media, pigment grinding assistants and antifoaming agents
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The 2-year studies reported here were designed to characterize the chronic toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of TRCP in each sex of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 60 rats per sex received 0, 44, or 88 mg/kg by oral gavage, once per day, 5 days per week, for up to 103 weeks. Groups of 60 mice per sex received 0, 175, or 350 mg/kg by oral gavage on the same dosing schedule. Each of these groups contained 10 animals which were euthanized at 66 weeks. The principal toxic effects of chronic exposure of rats to TRCP occurred in the brain and kidney.
 NAME: Triticonazole     
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: A seed treatment fungicide for the control of common bunt, loose smut and covered smut on barley, oats and wheat.
HEALTH PROBLEM: Triticonazole is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. Triticonazole is of low acute toxicity by the oral, dermal and inhalative route, it is not irritating to skin and eyes and shows no sensitizing properties. The main target organs identified were the liver and the adrenals.
NAME: Tryclopyrbutoxyethyl
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: TRICLOPYR BUTOXY ETHYL ESTER is a butyl cellosolve ester of triclopyr, selective systemic herbicide that is rapidly absorbed through the roots and foliage. It translocates throughout the plant, accumulating in meristematic tissues and inducing auxin type responses. It is used for the control of woody plants and broadleaf weeds in grassland, uncultivated land, industrial areas, plantation crops and rice. Triclopyr was first registered on May 8, 1979 as a herbicide on non-crop areas and in forestry use for the control of broadleaf weeds and woody plants. Triclopyr BEE was subsequently registered on June 11, 1980 for use on the same sites. Both formulations were registered for use on turf sites in 1984. On April 16, 1985, triclopyr BEE was registered for use on rangeland and permanent grass pastures. Most recently (January 11, 1995), Triclopyr was registered for use on rice to control many hard to control broadleaf weed species. An application for registration on aquatic use sites is pending. A Data Call-In Notice (DCI) was issued in August 1991 requiring the submission of product chemistry.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It shows low toxicity to birds and moderately toxic to fish. It is non-toxic to bees. The Acute Oral LD in male rats with the free acid form of triclopyr was 729 mg/kg and 630 50 mg/kg in female rats, with a Toxicity Category of III (MRID # 00031940). The same toxicity categories were obtained from testing of the TEA and BEE forms of triclopyr (except eye irritation). The Acute Dermal LD in rabbits using either the free acid, TEA, or BEE form of triclopyr was > 50 2000 mg/kg (Toxicity Category III; MRID #'s 00056009 [free acid], 41443302 [TEA], and 40557005 [BEE]). The Acute Inhalation LC in male and female rats was > 2.6 mg/L using the TEA form, and 50 >4.8 mg/L using the BEE form with a Toxicity Category of IV (MRID #'s 41443303 [TEA] and 40557006 [BEE]).
 NAME: Tycor (SMY 1500)               
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Other names of this chemical compound are 1,2,4-Triazine-5(4H)-one, 4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(ethylthio)- (9CI); 128883 (US EPA PC Code Text); 128883 (US EPA PC Code); 4-Amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(ethylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one; 4-Amino-6-tert-butyl-3-(ethylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one; 64529-56-2 (CAS number); 64529562; 64529562 (CAS number without hyphens); Bay DIC 1559; Bay SMY 1500; Ebuzin; Ethiozin; Ethiozin (ebuzin/tycor); Ethiozin (proposed); Ethiozinebuzin/tycor; Tycor; Tycor DF
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is poisonous by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Low toxicity by skin contact has been observed. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NOx and SOx.
NAME: Uniconazole-P
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide, plant growth regulator)
DESCRIPTION: Uniconazole-P is a suspension concentrate formulation containing 50 g/L Uniconazole-p. It is proposed that the product will be used for the improvement of fruit shape and reduction in vegetative growth in avocados. For foliar spray application to certain varieties of grapes, citrus and prunes to promote desirable harvest effects
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Uniconazole-p, the active ingredient in Sunny, is rapidly absorbed after oral ingestion and extensively metabolized by the liver. There is no accumulation in the tissues and the metabolites are rapidly excreted in the faeces and urine. It has moderate acute oral toxicity and low acute dermal and inhalation toxicity. It is a slight eye irritant, but not a skin irritant or skin sensitizer. The formulated product, Sunny, containing 50 g/L Uniconazole-p, has a similar acute toxicological profile except that has very low acute oral toxicity. In repeat dose studies in mice, rats and dogs, the main adverse effect caused by oral ingestion of high doses of Uniconazole-p was an increase in the size and weight of the liver. Fat accumulation in the liver was also consistently observed at high doses. Although observed less consistently, increases in the activity of some enzymes indicated altered liver function as a response to Uniconazole-p exposure. In long term studies, there was no evidence of an increase in cancer. This result is further supported by several studies which show that Uniconazole-p does not damage genetic material. Uniconazole-p had no effects on reproductive behavior or performance of rats and no effect on fetal development in rabbits. At doses that were not toxic to the mother, there were no effects on the rat fetus. Based on an assessment of the toxicology, it was considered that there should be no adverse effects on human health from the use of these products when used in accordance with the label directions.
NAME: Vamidothion
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTIONS: They are potent cholinesterase enzyme inhibitors that act by interfering with the metabolism of acetylcholine, which results in accumulation of acetylcholine at neuroreceptor transmission sites.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Eighteen people using vamidothion on crops were examined. The concentration of the product in air was 0.024 mg/cu m 50 meters away from the point of application. Symptoms recorded were a very slight drop in pulse rate and arterial blood pressure in 8 subjects. For 10 minutes, a reduction of 4-11% in blood cholinesterase was observed.
NAME: Vinclozolin
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Vinclozolin is a fungicide used to control various diseases on raspberries, chicory grown for Belgian endive, lettuce, kiwi, canola, snap beans, dry bulb onions, ornamentals, and turf. Import tolerances have been established to permit importation of Vinclozolin-treated cucumbers, sweet peppers and wine. Vinclozolin is formulated as a dry flowable and extruded granular which may be applied with aerial, chemigation, or ground equipment (broadcast, band, or soil drench); as a dip treatment on ornamental bulbs and corms, cut flowers, rose budwood, or nursery stock; and with thermal foggers in greenhouses. Vinclozolin has been registered in the United States since 1981 for use as a fungicide. A Data Call-In (DCI) was issued in 1991 for vinclozolin requiring the submission of additional data on product and residue chemistry, toxicity, environmental fate, and ecological effects. Subsequent DCIs were issued in 1995 and 1996 requiring additional environmental fate and ecological toxicity studies. Also, the Agricultural Data Call-In (AGDCI) was issued in 1995, which required data to help estimate postapplication occupational exposure. The Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) reflects a reassessment of all data which were submitted in response to the DCIs.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Vinclozolin generally has been shown to have low acute oral/dermal/inhalation toxicity. Vinclozolin is not an irritant to the eye/skin but can act as a skin sensitizer. The principal toxic effects induced by vinclozolin and/or its metabolites are related to its antiandrogenic activity. Androgens are the principal male steroid hormones, such as testosterone, which stimulate the development and maintenance of the male reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. Studies show that vinclozolin may have minimal antiandrogenic activity at relevant dose levels but that at least two vinclozolin metabolites occur in mammals, plants, and soil and are responsible for much of the antiandrogenic activity attributable to vinclozolin. Vinclozolin exerts its effects most dramatically during the developmental stages of animals ultimately resulting in reproductive effects. At low dose levels in rats (>3 mg/kg/day), the most androgen sensitive effects are noted, such as decreased prostate weight, weight reduction in other sex organs, nipple/areolas development, and decreased ano-genital distance in male rats. At higher dose levels, the reduction in male sex organ weight is exacerbated, and sex organ malformations are seen, such as reduced penis size, ectopic testes, vaginal pouches, hypospadias, and additional ambiguities of the urogenital system.'

 NAME: Zoxamide

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Zoxium is used for the control of early and late blight of potatoes and downy mildew on grapes. Due to the mancozeb, Gavel will also control Bunch Rot and Dead Arm on grapes. The products can be applied aerially or with ground equipment including chemigation. Zoxamide is applied at rates of 0.13 to 0.17 lb. active ingredient (ai)/acre on potatoes and 0.125 to 0.2 lb. ai/acre on grapes.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Zoxamide has low acute toxicity (Toxicity Category IV for acute oral, inhalation toxicity and Category III for acute dermal toxicity and ocular irritation). Zoxamide is considered to be a strong dermal sensitizer, but it is not a skin irrita from the use of zoxamide. There was no significant acute toxicity in a battery of acute toxicity nt. EPA has concluded from the review of the supporting data that there are no risks of concern studies, however, zoxamide is a strong dermal sensitizer and potential inhalation sensitizer. It was calculated that the risk due to exposure to residues in food and water was below the AgencyÕs level of concern for all population subgroups, including infants and children.


Contaminant Facts: Pesticides

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